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India - Kashmir

Pakistan - India conflict over Kashmir


As British rule came to an end in 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh, the Hindu ruler of the predominantly Muslim states of Jammu and Kashmir, faced the choice of whether to join with India or Pakistan. After Pakistani soldiers invaded, he signed the Instrument of Accession with India. A UN-imposed ceasefire in 1948 called for troop withdrawals and elections to determine Kashmir's future, neither of which happened.

1965 and 1971 saw two more Indo-Pakistani wars, the latter resulting in the creation of the new state of Bangladesh out of eastern Pakistan.

The current insurgency arose in 1989, and its source is in dispute. Pakistan claims it is an uprising of local freedom fighters against Indian rule, while India claims that Pakistan arms and organizes the militants.

The Kashmir region has been subjected to human rights abuses from both Indian and militant forces throughout its history of turmoil. A series of protests, known as the 2010 Kashmir Unrest, demanded demilitarization of Jammu and Kashmir in reaction to human rights violations by Indian soldiers. Over 100 protestors were killed by police forces.

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Fund for Peace (FfP) Failed States Index: 72.9 Warning (worst is 120)
HIIK Conflict Barometer 2008: 4
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre Global Statistics : 300,000 IDPs very approx.
WFP Hunger Map: 21 % undernourished
Economist Intelligence Unit Sovereign Ratings: Rating BB
International Crisis Group Crisis Watch: Unchanged
News up to: 2 Hizb militants killed while trying to ambush police party 03/26 2 terrorists killed in encounter in Pulwama, J&K 03/26 I prayed for death: Indian soldier Chandu Chavan who strayed into Pakistan 03/24 Counter-terrorist operations claim 92 soldiers in J&K since 03/24 Indian propaganda about LoC aims to destabilise Kashmir: Gen Qamar 03/24 Ready to talk with India on Kashmir issue, says Pak Prez; envoy Basit bats for good relations 03/23 For talks, Pak should commit to end terror: Rajnath 03/22 'Surgical operation has cut terror attacks' 03/22 Valley militant ranks swelled in 2016: Govt 03/21 J&K: Gangs of stone pelters, 'pro azadi' protesters give sleepless nights to mainstream parties 03/21 88 youth join militancy in Kashmir in 2016: Govt 03/21 Jihadi recruitment saw 55% jump after Wani 03/21 Surgical strike heroes get gallantry medals 03/20 In Maoist fight, without mine shield 03/19 Surgical strike conducted after 'specific and very definite' inputs: Government 03/17 J&K: Terrorists escape after exchanging gunfire with Security Forces 03/17 Hurriyat decries Hizbul line 03/17 Troubled waters: India fast-tracks hydro projects in held Kashmir 03/16 Troubled waters? India fast-tracks hydro projects in disputed Kashmir 03/16 India fast-tracks hydro projects in occupied Kashmir 03/16 Hizbul charade ends as it says pelt stones for Islam 03/16 Burhan successor for Islam supremacy 03/16 Shift focus to enforcing Sharia: Hizbul Mujahideen 03/16 3 terrorists, girl killed in Kupwara encounter 03/15 Tie-up test for Mehbooba brother 03/15 Troubled waters? India fast-tracks hydro projects in disputed Kashmir 03/15 Former sarpanch found dead in Jammu & Kashmir 03/13 J-K: Militants kill former sarpanch in Pulwama 03/13 Pre-poll Valley murder 03/13 Fencing on Afghan border to stop terrorists from entering country: Zakaria 03/11 ‘Afghan border fencing will stop terrorists’ 03/11 India repatriates Uri attack `suspects` to Pakistan 03/10 DGMO speaks to Pak counterpart on terrorists' movement along 03/09 No terrorists' movement on LoC, show us proof: Pak 03/09 India conveys concern to Pak on LoC terrorists  03/09 Terrorist movement on rise along LoC: India to Pak 03/09 Homeward bound 03/09 Three killed in IHK firefight 03/09 Teen, 2 rebels killed during fighting in Kashmir 03/09 Boy, two ‘militants’ killed in Indian Kashmir firefight 03/09 J&K: 3 militants, civilian killed in 2 encounters 03/09 Three militants killed in two encounters in Kashmir, civilian dead in crossfire 03/09 Valley bullet kills student 03/09 India Army conveys concern over terrorists along LoC 03/09 You too have families, J&K DGP warns terrorists  03/08 India deploys US-made surveillance drones along LoC 03/08 Kashmiri's who glorify terrorists should learn from Saifullah's father: BJP leader 03/08 India’s Counter-Terror Agency Frees Two Pakistani Boys Arrested for Uri Attack 03/08 J&K: Encounter underway in Pulwama 03/08 Kashmir rural polls to counter 03/08 Gurmehar Kaur to be represented on screen? 03/08 NIA releases two Uri terror attack suspects 03/08 Raid on officer home worries Valley police 03/07 'Pak groups fund Kashmir terror through charity' 03/06 Pakistan-based terror groups fund terrorism in J&K through charity 03/06 Pakistan-Based Groups Carried Out 2008 Mumbai Attacks - Ex-Security Advisor 03/06 Pak-based terror groups fund terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir through charity: NIA 03/06 War and Pakistan's 3rd front 03/06 Kashmir blast: Three civilians injured in Sopore 03/05 Policeman, two militants killed in Kashmir encounter 03/05 Firefight leaves three dead, several injured in Kashmir 03/05 Fierce gunbattle in Indian Kashmir kills 3 combatants 03/05 Tral: Slain constable had volunteered for op that claimed life 03/05 Three killed during 15-hour firefight in IHK 03/05 1 cop martyred, 2 terrorists killed in Tral encounter 03/05 J&K: 14-hour-long encounter ends in Tral, two terrorists and one policeman killed 03/05 Bandipora encounter: CRPF personnel Chetan Cheeta`s medical condition remains critical 03/04 J&K: Ops called off after militants manage to flee 03/04 Civilian death shows politics of protest 03/04 J&K: Encounter underway in Tral, top militant commander believed to be trapped 03/04 Ahead of Indus talks, Punjab and J&K agree to resume work on Ravi dam 03/04 Stone-pelters cock a snook at Army chief 03/04 Jammu & Kashmir: Tral encounter continues, police constable Manzoor Ahmed killed fighting 03/04 Tral gunfight: 1 cop martyred, 2 terrorists killed 03/04 India may not engage with Pakistan in near future 03/04 Fierce Gunfight on in Kashmir, Protesters Clash With Security Forces 03/04 1 killed, 3 injured in J&K after police party attacked 03/03 Don`t make a joke of your father`s martydom: Pathankot attack martyr`s daughter to Gurmehar Kaur 03/03 Pak created terror outfits, now 'monster' devouring it: India 03/01 After bloodshed and violence, school bells finally ring in Kashmir 03/01 Pellet guns in Jammu & Kashmir go up from 640 to 5,589 03/01 Pakistan created terror outfits, now 'monster' devouring it: India 03/01 Schools reopen in Kashmir after 8 months 03/01 Pakistan must vacate illegal occupation of Kashmir: India at United Nations 03/01 Pakistan created terror outfits against India, now `monster` devouring its own creator: India 03/01 Terrorists devouring creator: India's jibe at Pak 03/01 8 Armymen sacked for cowardice to get pension 03/01 Pakistan, Russia agree to bolster military ties 02/28 Army on shopping spree, commandos to get deadlier 02/28 Sehwag takes 'plain fun' cover, wrestlers wade in 02/28 Gunbattle that felled Gurmehar's father 02/28 8 Months After Burhan Wani Encounter, Kashmiri Students Return to Classes 02/28 CRPF to continue use of pellet guns in Kashmir, but with built-in deflectors 02/27 CRPF new pellet rule 02/27 Farooq Abdullah’s statement termed an election stunt by APHC 02/26 'Govt should keep its promise': Macchil braveheart's kin seek Modi's help over compensation 02/25 Militants killing innocents will be neutralized: BJP 02/25 No evidence against 'guides' of Uri attackers 02/25 Army personnel visit Shopian encounter braveheart's family 02/25 J&K: 'Promote moderates, crackdown on separatists' 02/25