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India - Kashmir

Pakistan - India conflict over Kashmir


As British rule came to an end in 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh, the Hindu ruler of the predominantly Muslim states of Jammu and Kashmir, faced the choice of whether to join with India or Pakistan. After Pakistani soldiers invaded, he signed the Instrument of Accession with India. A UN-imposed ceasefire in 1948 called for troop withdrawals and elections to determine Kashmir's future, neither of which happened.

1965 and 1971 saw two more Indo-Pakistani wars, the latter resulting in the creation of the new state of Bangladesh out of eastern Pakistan.

The current insurgency arose in 1989, and its source is in dispute. Pakistan claims it is an uprising of local freedom fighters against Indian rule, while India claims that Pakistan arms and organizes the militants.

The Kashmir region has been subjected to human rights abuses from both Indian and militant forces throughout its history of turmoil. A series of protests, known as the 2010 Kashmir Unrest, demanded demilitarization of Jammu and Kashmir in reaction to human rights violations by Indian soldiers. Over 100 protestors were killed by police forces.

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Fund for Peace (FfP) Failed States Index: 72.9 Warning (worst is 120)
HIIK Conflict Barometer 2008: 4
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre Global Statistics : 300,000 IDPs very approx.
WFP Hunger Map: 21 % undernourished
Economist Intelligence Unit Sovereign Ratings: Rating BB
International Crisis Group Crisis Watch: Unchanged
News up to: Indian soldier beheaded near LoC 10/28 Terrorists kill jawan along LoC, mutilate body 10/28 Curfew imposed in parts of Srinagar ahead of Friday prayers 10/28 15 Pak Rangers killed in retaliatory fire: BSF 10/28 Armed forces answerable to govt: SC 10/28 5 suspected militants, policeman arrested in Jammu and Kashmir 10/28 Terrorists mutilate soldier's body; Army vows 'appropriate response' 10/28 J&K: Pakistan violates ceasefire in Kupwara; one soldier, terrorist killed 10/28 'We went to share the pain of Kashmir' 10/28 Terrorists behead Indian soldier in cross-LoC encounter: Reports 10/28 By hitting schools, separatists making poor kids stone-pelters: Mehbooba 10/28 Jawan martyred as Army foils infiltration bid 10/27 Jammu and Kashmir: Primary school building set ablaze in Baramulla 10/27 India Expels Pakistani Staffer on Spying Charges 10/27 Live Updates: Pakistan violates ceasefire once again; border areas on high alert 10/27 Event at Pakistan Embassy Ankara marks Kashmir “Black Day” 10/27 Terror groups in J&K launch Taliban-type offensive against schools 10/26 Fresh violence breaks out in Kashmir, four arrested 10/26 Security forces bust militant hideout in Poonch 10/26 Major terror attack averted? Jammu and Kashmir Police busts militant hideout near LoC; huge cache of arms, ammunition recovered 10/26 Uri martyr's newborn daughter named Bharti 10/26 Pak traders opt out of fair 10/26 Bahrain support for India on Kashmir 10/25 Kashmir logjam: BJP's Yashwant Sinha leads team to initiate talks with Hurriyat 10/25 Lashkar claims responsibility for Uri terror attack 10/25 Pakistan has distinction of being ``epicentre`` of terrorism: India at IPU 10/25 India to Install Modern Avionics in Mi-17 V5 helicopters 10/25 Lashkar-e-Toiba claims responsibility for Uri attack in posters pasted in Pakistan town 10/25 India-Pakistan Tensions Spill Into Bollywood 10/24 Kupwara: Terrorist killed in encounter 10/24 3 Civilians Die in Kashmir Shelling 10/24 In Bahrain, Rajnath paints a grim portrait of Pakistan 10/24 Rajnath in Bahrain: Pakistan's assurances cannot be taken on face value due to approach 10/24 Three Reported Killed In India-Pakistan Border Clashes 10/24  Time to revamp Kashmir narrative 10/24 Pak uses terror as state policy instrument: Rajnath 10/24 Pakistani army says India's border fire kills 2 civilians 10/24 Modi’s belligerent stance raises risk of war with Pakistan 10/24 What Will It Take To Get Troubled India-Pakistan Ties Back on Track? 10/24 Pakistan violates ceasefire again at RS Pura in Jammu 10/23 Pakistan is stronger than ever before, claims Army Chief Raheel Sharif 10/23 BSF constable, injured in Pak firing in Kashmir, dies 10/23 Sri Lanka: Kashmiris step up sovereignty struggle braving New Delhi’s militarization 10/23 J&K: BSF jawan Gurnam Singh, injured in cross-border firing by Pakistan, dies 10/22 Watchdog flagged banks on cyber strike from Pak 10/22 Two local JeM militants arrested in Baramulla 10/22 2 Jaish terrorists found in Kashmir after cops launch door-to-door search 10/22 Remember the nation's Armed Forces on Diwali: PM 10/22 M Ilyas Khan: India's 'surgical strikes' - truth or illusion? 10/22 Overview: Our barbed boundaries 10/22 Pakistani spy arrested in Ramgarh 10/22 Baramulla: Security forces arrest two JeM militants 10/22 Pakistan rejects India's claim about killing seven soldiers 10/22 Pak sniper attack: BSF kills 7 Rangers, 1 militant; Rajnath Singh reviews situation 10/21 BSF kills 7 Pak Rangers, 1 terrorist on Jammu border 10/21 Jammu and Kashmir: Army, police launch major search operation in Baramulla 10/21 Blog: After surgical strikes, what next for J&K? 10/21 BSF hits back at ceasefire breach, says 7 Pak Rangers and 1 terrorist killed 10/21 Syed Salahuddin seeks military help from Pakistan 10/21 Pakistan bans all Indian TV and radio as tensions mount 10/21 Don't kill 'local boys', 'tolerate' stone-pelting: Mehbooba to cops 10/21 Pakistan bans Indian media content 10/21 7 Pak soldiers shot on Jammu border: BSF 10/21 India: Pakistan soldiers killed in border shootings 10/21 India Says Seven Pakistani Troops Killed On Kashmir Border 10/21 Ceasefire violation: BSF retaliates at Bobiya post in Hiranagar sector, kills Pak ranger 10/21 `Talks won`t provide solution to Kashmir dispute, Pakistani military should support Mujahideens` 10/21 Pakistan violates another ceasefire in J&K, resorts to firing in Pooch 10/20 Pakistan to welcome if U.S mediates with India on Kashmir issue:... 10/20 In a first, India, China hold joint army exercise in Jammu-Kashmir 10/20 Kashmiri Pandits say will return on own terms 10/20 12 J&K govt staff sacked for anti-India leanings 10/20 Apples cheaper for city, sour for Kashmir growers 10/20 Pak violates ceasefire in Kathua; BSF jawan injured 10/20 Kashmir journalist questioned over Hizbul Mujahideen video 10/20 India, China hold joint army exercise in Kashmir 10/19 New Hizbul commander asks Kashmiri Pandits to return to Valley 10/19 First India-China joint Army exercise in J&K 10/19 J&K: 44 suspected terrorists arrested; Chinese, Pak flags, incriminating materials recovered 10/19 Gun-snatching in Valley worries Army 10/19 J & K: Chinese flags recovered from terror hideouts; 44 held 10/18 What more troubles brew for Sharif in Pakistan 10/18 44 held in Baramulla; LeT issued warning to SHO 10/18 Don't believe Pak sponsors terror: Ex-Chinese envoy 10/18 Chinese flags recovered from terror hideouts in J&K's Baramulla; 44 held 10/18 Ready to deal with any misadventure at LoC: Army 10/18 Terrorists decamp after snatching five rifles from policemen in Jammu and Kashmir`s Anantnag 10/17 Narendra Modi misleading BRICS, India has no moral ground to talk about counter-terrorism efforts: Pakistan 10/17 Modi, Xi differ over terrorism at BRICS summit 10/17 AP PHOTOS: Editor selections from the past week in Asia 10/17 Militants decamp with service rifles of cops guarding TV tower in Anantnag 10/17 Rupee Tumbles 12 Paise Against Dollar on US Rate Hike Calls 10/17 Militants loot Indian weapons to arm new recruits in Kashmir 10/17 Mumbai Film Festival bows to threats, drops ‘Jago Hua Savera’ from line-up 10/17 Pak`s entire establishment fueling terrorism in India: Rajnath 10/17 India Ready To Help Pakistan Act Against Terrorists: Rajnath 10/17 India misleading BRICS, trying to hide its brutalities in Kashmir: Pakistan 10/17 Ongoing unrest in Kashmir Valley completes 100 days 10/16 Pakistan at it again, violates ceasefire in Jammu and Kashmir`s Naushera 10/16 Kashmir`s 100-day shutdown: Time refuses to heal 10/16