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India - Kashmir

Pakistan - India conflict over Kashmir


As British rule came to an end in 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh, the Hindu ruler of the predominantly Muslim states of Jammu and Kashmir, faced the choice of whether to join with India or Pakistan. After Pakistani soldiers invaded, he signed the Instrument of Accession with India. A UN-imposed ceasefire in 1948 called for troop withdrawals and elections to determine Kashmir's future, neither of which happened.

1965 and 1971 saw two more Indo-Pakistani wars, the latter resulting in the creation of the new state of Bangladesh out of eastern Pakistan.

The current insurgency arose in 1989, and its source is in dispute. Pakistan claims it is an uprising of local freedom fighters against Indian rule, while India claims that Pakistan arms and organizes the militants.

The Kashmir region has been subjected to human rights abuses from both Indian and militant forces throughout its history of turmoil. A series of protests, known as the 2010 Kashmir Unrest, demanded demilitarization of Jammu and Kashmir in reaction to human rights violations by Indian soldiers. Over 100 protestors were killed by police forces.

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Fund for Peace (FfP) Failed States Index: 72.9 Warning (worst is 120)
HIIK Conflict Barometer 2008: 4
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre Global Statistics : 300,000 IDPs very approx.
WFP Hunger Map: 21 % undernourished
Economist Intelligence Unit Sovereign Ratings: Rating BB
International Crisis Group Crisis Watch: Unchanged
News up to: LeT behind Uri, Handwara terror attacks, says NIA 01/19 Militant killed in encounter in Kashmir 01/19 Peace will return only after resolution of Kashmir issue: Raheel Sharif 01/19 LeT not JeM behind Uri and Handwara attacks, says NIA 01/19 NIA says LeT behind Uri, Handwara attacks 01/19 India's Modi, taking shots at China, says no talks with Pakistan 01/19 RSS, armed village defence committees committing cleansing of Kashmiri Muslims in... 01/19 Pakistan accuses India of carrying out ‘ethnic cleansing’ of Kashmiris 01/19 Lashkar chief Lakhvi's 'nephew' killed in north Kashmir encounter 01/19 LeT not JeM behind Uri and Handwara attack, says NIA 01/19 Lakhvi 'kin' gunned down 01/19 Pakistan prepared to respond to any threat: Pak army chief 01/18 Militant killed in encounter in J&K's Hajin area 01/18 Trying to convince China that India's rise not harmful to its ascent: FS Jaishankar 01/18 PM Narendra Modi sets terms for Pakistan, woos China for trade 01/17 Centre's assessment report reveals demonetization dented terrorist activity 01/17 3 militants killed in Anantnag district 01/16 Used to whizzing bullets and landmines, Kashmir border farmers now hit by drought 01/16 Security forces gun down three terrorists in encounter in Jammu and Kashmir`s Pahalgam; 3 AK-47 rifles recovered 01/16 Indian troops martyr 3 more Kashmiri youth in Pahalgam 01/16 Pakistan defence minister warns India of 'befitting response' if surgical strike is conducted 01/16 Wani-style trio killed 01/16 Indian army says killed three militants in gunfight in Kashmir 01/16 Encounter under way in J&K's Anantnag 01/15 Kashmir: Encounter breaks out between terrorists and security forces in Anantnag 01/15 Police confess detaining 7,000 youths in Kashmir 01/15 Kashmir: Separatists to observe 'black day' on Republic day 01/15 BSF troops foil infiltration bid in Samba; arms cache seized in Pooch 01/14 Indian army chief refuses to rule out surgical strikes against Pakistan 01/14 Over 90 protesters killed in IOK crackdown in 2016: HRW report 01/14 Akhnoor attack: Hafiz Saeed claims responsibility for 'surgical strike', says 30 soldiers killed 01/13 BSF troops foil infiltration bid along International Border in Samba 01/13 Gen Rawat on Pakistan, Kashmir: 5 top quotes 01/13 Will do surgical strikes again if needed: Army chief 01/13 Jammu and Kashmir: JKBOSE declares class 10 result; 83% students qualify 01/13 Pakistan's Hafiz Saeed: Is charity leader linked to Kashmir attacks? 01/12 Infiltration bid foiled, 2 terrorists killed in Poonch 01/11 Militant killed in encounter in Kashmir 01/10 Shiv Sena slams Manohar Parrikar over rising terror attacks 01/10 Indian troops martyr one youth in Bandipora 01/10 Indian Army: 3 of its Workers Killed in Kashmir Attack 01/09 Three killed in attack on army camp in Indian-held Kashmir 01/09 Militants attack construction workers in Indian Kashmir, kill three 01/09 Three Indian workers killed in attack on Kashmir camp 01/09 Pakistan, separatists thwarted peace process, says Mehbooba Mufti 01/09 2016 unrest conspiracy by Pak, separatists: J&K CM 01/09 One terrorist killed in Bandipora encounter 01/09 Three killed in terror attack in J&K 01/08 Annus horribilis 01/08 3 killed at Kashmir's GREF camp in terror attack 01/08 Bahadur Ali's arrest triggered violent attacks in North Kashmir 01/07 Govt to ban Jundullah, other terrorist groups 01/07 NIA charges captured LeT terrorist Bahadur Ali 01/06 Top Lashkar terrorist killed on outskirts of Srinagar 01/06 NIA files charge sheet against Pakistani terrorist - Know about deep-rooted conspiracy against India by LeT 01/06 Lashkar top gun killed 01/06 Hundreds attends militant commander Muzaffar Ahmad's funeral in Kashmir 01/06 Propaganda driving youth to militancy to be targeted, not individuals: Army chief 01/05 Kashmir 'integral part' of Pakistan, says PM 01/05 Pakistan PM Nawaz Sharif again praises Burhan Wani 01/05 Army chief Gen Rawat on visit to J&K 01/05 Pakistan praises Kashmir rebel, condemns Indian 'repression' 01/05 Sharif ticks off India again on Wani, Kashmir 01/05 An agenda for General Rawat 01/04 Identity riddle on Uri 'ultras' 01/04 Jammu & Kashmir: Police apprehends LeT terrorist in Handwara, arms & ammunition recovered 01/04 Over 2,600 cases of stone pelting in J&K till December 31, says govt 01/03 Firing in Pulwama district, 1 CRPF soldier injured 01/03 Surgical strikes proved India has the will to strike back: Army chief 01/03 Jammu & Kashmir: Militant killed in encounter with security forces 01/02 J&K: Militants open fire in Handwara, cop killed 12/31 India assails Pak for calling RSS, others `terrorist elements` 12/30 Banned Pakistani group's student wing protests US terror tag 12/30 Imran Khan bats for peace with India 12/30 Kashmir: Encounter breaks out between security forces and terrorists in Bandipora 12/28 Army chief General Dalbir Singh visits Udhampur and forward areas of Northern Command 12/28 CTD apprehends alleged militant 12/27 What a dreadful year it has been for Kashmir 12/26 Indian commandos preparing for `Surgical Strike Part 2` with high-tech weapons - WATCH SPECIAL REPORT 12/26 2016 was a year of turmoil in Jammu and Kashmir 12/26 JUI-F chief retaliates against Imran’s ‘vice captain’ comments 12/26 Kashmir unrest: CM Mufti wants cases against youths not involved in 'serious crimes' reviewed 12/25 Pakistan releases Indian fishermen in bid to ease tensions with Delhi 12/25 J&K: One shot dead by terrorists in Baramulla 12/25 Water wars? 12/21 Changing dynamics 12/20 Valley to focus on surrender, not battle 12/20 JeM behind blasts in J&K`s Tangdhar, Samba, Kathua, Rajbagh last year: NIA 12/19 Pakistani Cinemas Quietly Show Indian Films Again as Tensions Ease, Losses Mount 12/19 Pakistan lifts ban on Bollywood movies 12/18 In Kashmir, terrorists attack convoy from crowd cover, kill 3 soldiers 12/17 Three Indian soldiers killed in held Kashmir ambush 12/17 Terrorists attack Army convoy, 3 soldiers martyred 12/17 Militants kill three soldiers in Indian Kashmir, officials say 12/17 Govt action to be based on probe report on death of Burhan's brother: Nirmal Singh 12/17 Militants kill three soldiers in occupied Kashmir: officials 12/17 3 jawans killed in J&K; death toll this year 87 12/17 Three soldiers killed as Indian army convoy ambushed in Kashmir 12/17 'When we don't talk to Kashmiris, Pakistan becomes more relevant' 12/16 Terrorists loot Rs 11 lakh from Ratnipora branch of Jammu and Kashmir Bank 12/15