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Sudan - south

Conflict between autonomous South Sudan and northern government.

Summary

From SmallWarsJournal.com: Southern Sudan - The Four Theses:

Even before Sudan first gained its independence, in 1956, a separatist insurgency has existed in Southern Sudan. The root causes of this struggle - economic marginalization and political disenfranchisement - have never been adequately resolved. Twice this insurgency has boiled over into all-out civil war. The 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was the result of an international effort aimed at ending the period of conflict known as the Second Sudanese Civil War, a conflict which lasted from 1983 - 2005. The CPA was signed between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M). Given that the root causes were the same, this conflict was really just a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil War (1955 - 1973). However, unlike the first iteration, the Second Sudanese Civil War featured considerable regional support for the opposing belligerents. In effect, the Second Sudanese Civil War was as much an interstate war by proxy as it was an intrastate conflict.

The CPA provided for a level of autonomy for Southern Sudan (with a regional capital in Juba), and established the framework for a government of national unity (located in the country's capital, Khartoum). The CPA succeeded in all these respects. But like so many other well-intentioned efforts, the CPA carried the seeds of its own destruction - a 'poison pill.' In this case, the 'poison pill' is a key provision of the CPA that sets a date for Southern Sudan to hold a referendum on its future status - full union within Sudan, albeit with considerable autonomy, or independence. According to the terms of the CPA, the referendum was set to be held six years to the day following the signing of the CPA. Since the CPA was signed on January 9th, 2005; the referendum is set for January 9th, 2011.

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Stats:

Fund for Peace (FfP) Failed States Index: 113 Alert (worst is 120)
HIIK Conflict Barometer 2008: 4
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre Global Statistics : 1,935,000 IDPs
WFP Hunger Map: 26 % undernourished
Economist Intelligence Unit Sovereign Ratings: Rating C
International Crisis Group Crisis Watch: Unchanged
News up to:
allafrica.com Uganda: How Museveni, Bashir Struck Deal to Release Sudanese Soldiers 03/25
sudantribune.com S. Sudan rebels themselves from Kampala-based faction 03/25
monitor.co.ug South Sudan refugees flock Uganda as fighting intensifies 03/23
allafrica.com South Sudan: South Sudan Needs Peace As Much As Food 03/21
sudantribune.com South Sudan rebels kidnap Pakistani engineer 03/21
irinnews.org South Sudan needs peace as much as food 03/20
sudantribune.com 18 SPLA soldiers defect to rebels in W. Bhar el-Ghazal: official 03/18
voanews.com New South Sudan Rebel Group Gains Supporters 03/17
reuters.com South Sudan government to blame for famine, still buying arms: U.N. report 03/17
sudantribune.com S. Sudan rebels deny presence of NAS forces in Equatoria region 03/16
sudantribune.com Greater Equatoria opposition governors call for united resistance 03/15
sudantribune.com S. Sudanese rebels downplay “negative force” calls 03/15
allafrica.com Sudan: SPLM-N Releases 127 Detainees in Goodwill Gesture 03/14
sudantribune.com AU chairperson welcomes POWs by Sudan and SPLM-N 03/12
sudantribune.com S. Sudan wants its armed opposition labelled a “negative force” 03/12
allafrica.com South Sudan: Soldiers Accused of Village Rampage 03/10
foxnews.com Cholera reaches South Sudan's second-largest city, UN says 03/10
sudantribune.com South Sudan rebels capture two Indian oil workers 03/10
voanews.com UN: Cholera Reaches South Sudan's Second-largest City 03/10
sudantribune.com South Sudan monitoring body says rebels killed Taban’s representative 03/10
sudantribune.com SPLM-N welcomes pardoning of Darfur POWs, calls for release of all prisoners 03/10
theeastafrican.co.ke Nile Basin countries building bridges over Ethiopian dam, to calm tensions 03/09
globalsecurity.org South Sudan Soldiers Accused of Village Rampage 03/09
bbc.co.uk South Sudan conflict: 'Soldiers will kill you for no reason in Yei' 03/08
voanews.com South Sudan Soldiers Accused of Village Rampage 03/08
monitor.co.ug Sudan rebels free 125 prisoners captured in fighting 03/08
sudantribune.com SPLM-N says three government prisoners belong to Boko Haram 03/06
allafrica.com Sudan: SPLM-N Rebels Release 132 POWs in Goodwill Gesture 03/06
allafrica.com South Sudan: Soldiers Arrested for 'Mass' Rape 03/05
allafrica.com Sudan: Sudan Rebels Hand Over Prisoners of War 03/05
sudantribune.com S. Sudanese rebels, army clash in Eastern Equatoria state 03/05
aljazeera.com Sudanese rebel group releases 127 prisoners 03/05
sudantribune.com Sudanese POWs arrive Khartoum, amid calls for peace 03/05
globalsecurity.org Sudanese rebels release 127 prisoners 03/05
theeastafrican.co.ke Sudan rebels hand over prisoners of war 03/04
sudantribune.com SPLM-N announces release of all government POWs 03/04
sudantribune.com Over 5,000 displaced from Lou Nuer areas of Jonglei state 03/04
sudantribune.com S. Sudanese political leaders need to support people: U.N 03/04
globalsecurity.org 'Political leadership needs to support its own people,' urges UN mission chief in South Sudan 03/03
sudantribune.com We urge the SPLM-N to allow humanitarian assistance 03/03
sudantribune.com Rebecca Garang criticized over remarks on child soldiers 02/28
sudantribune.com SLM-MM calls to arrest Sudanese officials indicted by the ICC 02/28
allafrica.com South Sudan: President Kiir Faces Fresh Rebellion As Senior Military Officers Resign 02/28
sudantribune.com Rebecca Garang says Kiir bears responsibility for South Sudan famine 02/26
sudantribune.com Sudan pardons Czech filmmaker, as SPLM-N calls to free pastors 02/26
sudantribune.com S. Sudan rebels accuse army of burning villages, lootings 02/26
allafrica.com South Sudan: Opinion - Stop the Violence, Fix the Famine 02/23
sudantribune.com Guterres appoints new commander for Abyei force 02/23
allafrica.com South Sudan: Kiir Vows to Neutralise Anti-Peace Elements 02/22
sudantribune.com Egypt provides South Sudan with arms and ammunition: al-Bashir 02/22
allafrica.com Sudan: Sudan Army, SPLM-N Clash and Violate Ceasefire 02/22
sudantribune.com SPLM-N announces end of South Kordofan clashes 02/22
sudantribune.com Sudanese army attacks SPLM-N positions in South Kordofan: rebels say 02/21
monitor.co.ug "War mongers" convinced S. Sudan Labour minister to resign - official 02/21
nation.co.ke Highway a death trap for South Sudan travel 02/21
sudantribune.com Sudanese army, SPLM-N trade accusations over renewed fighting in S. Kordofan 02/21
sudantribune.com "War mongers" convinced S. Sudan labour minister and public service to resign: official 02/19
sudantribune.com U.N human rights official condemns deplorable situation in S. Sudan 02/19
sudantribune.com Sudan welcomes Troika continued support for peace process in the country 02/18
scoop.co.nz South Sudan: Senior UN human rights official condemns 02/17
africa-newsroom.com Senior United Nations Human Rights Official Condemns Deplorable Rights Situation in South Sudan, Calls for Perpetrators to be Held to Account 02/17
allafrica.com South Sudan: Troops Accused of Mass Rape 02/17
globalsecurity.org South Sudan Cabinet Minister Resigns, Joins Rebels 02/17
globalsecurity.org Atrocities will end in South Sudan only when perpetrators 'face consequences' - UN rights official 02/17
un.org South Sudan: UN deplores lack of information on 20,000 people displaced in Upper Nile 02/16
sudantribune.com S. Sudan army says controls former rebel-held territory 02/16
sudantribune.com Upper Nile: U.N concerned over 20,000 civilians in wilderness 02/16
aljazeera.com Atrocities prompt mass exodus on South Sudan border 02/15
modernghana.com UNICEF launches $110 mn appeal for Sudan children 02/15
sudantribune.com South Sudanese rival factions clash in Bieh state 02/15
sudantribune.com S. Sudan’s first daughter decries suffering of civilians 02/14
allafrica.com South Sudan: General Quits Over 'Ethnic Cleansing' Regime 02/13
sudantribune.com S. Sudanese IDPs oppose re-deployment of Kenyan peacekeepers 02/12
monitor.co.ug Top South Sudan general resigns, attacks Kiir 02/12
dw.com South Sudan general quits over 'ethnic cleansing' regime 02/12
dw.com South Sudan general quits over 'ethnic cleansing' regime 02/12
sudantribune.com Sudan’s NUP calls to investigate killing of S. Kordofan herders 02/12
sudantribune.com Sudan’s NCP accuses SPLM-N of killing S. Kordofan herders 02/11
ekklesia.co.uk UN mission concern over escalation of conflict in South Sudan 02/10
un.org Fighting reaches 'worrying proportions' in South Sudan's north-east – UN mission 02/09
africa-newsroom.com Upper Nile Operations worrying 02/09
sudantribune.com Sudan’s NCP displeased with SPLM-N refusal of US humanitarian proposal 02/09
sudantribune.com Sudan, S. Sudan border commission to meet in April 02/08
sudantribune.com S. Sudan rival forces claim control of Upper Nile town 02/08
sudantribune.com Militias of Bashir’s Regime and the Proxy War (1) 02/08
allafrica.com Sudan: SPLM-North Sector Splinter Group Signs National Document 02/07
sudantribune.com South Sudan president sacks Abyei chief administrator 02/06
tribune.com.pk Fed up teachers: Teachers to stage protest outside Chief Minister House 02/06
sudantribune.com S. Sudan rebels warn of humanitarian catastrophic in Unity state 02/05
modernghana.com Sudan president accuses Egypt of backing opponents 02/05
sudantribune.com South Sudan army denies using Egyptian air force in rebel areas 02/04
globalsecurity.org South Sudan opposition accuses Egypt of attacking its positions 02/04
sudantribune.com MSF calls for humanitarian access in S. Sudan’s Upper Nile state 02/04
africa-newsroom.com South Sudan: Fleeing civilians cut off from emergency healthcare in Wau Shilluk 02/03
allafrica.com South Sudan: Fresh Fighting Flares Up 02/02
allafrica.com South Sudan: Fresh Clashes Near South Sudan's Oil Hub of Malakal 02/01
sudantribune.com Government-citizens relations two way traffic: S. Sudan MP 02/01
globalsecurity.org UN mission in South Sudan 'deeply concerned' by clashes between Government and opposition forces 01/31
theeastafrican.co.ke Fresh clashes near South Sudan's oil hub of Malakal 01/31
appablog.wordpress.com Press statement on Malakal 01/30