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Sudan - south

Conflict between autonomous South Sudan and northern government.

Summary

From SmallWarsJournal.com: Southern Sudan - The Four Theses:

Even before Sudan first gained its independence, in 1956, a separatist insurgency has existed in Southern Sudan. The root causes of this struggle - economic marginalization and political disenfranchisement - have never been adequately resolved. Twice this insurgency has boiled over into all-out civil war. The 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was the result of an international effort aimed at ending the period of conflict known as the Second Sudanese Civil War, a conflict which lasted from 1983 - 2005. The CPA was signed between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M). Given that the root causes were the same, this conflict was really just a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil War (1955 - 1973). However, unlike the first iteration, the Second Sudanese Civil War featured considerable regional support for the opposing belligerents. In effect, the Second Sudanese Civil War was as much an interstate war by proxy as it was an intrastate conflict.

The CPA provided for a level of autonomy for Southern Sudan (with a regional capital in Juba), and established the framework for a government of national unity (located in the country's capital, Khartoum). The CPA succeeded in all these respects. But like so many other well-intentioned efforts, the CPA carried the seeds of its own destruction - a 'poison pill.' In this case, the 'poison pill' is a key provision of the CPA that sets a date for Southern Sudan to hold a referendum on its future status - full union within Sudan, albeit with considerable autonomy, or independence. According to the terms of the CPA, the referendum was set to be held six years to the day following the signing of the CPA. Since the CPA was signed on January 9th, 2005; the referendum is set for January 9th, 2011.

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Stats:

Fund for Peace (FfP) Failed States Index: 113 Alert (worst is 120)
HIIK Conflict Barometer 2008: 4
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre Global Statistics : 1,935,000 IDPs
WFP Hunger Map: 26 % undernourished
Economist Intelligence Unit Sovereign Ratings: Rating C
International Crisis Group Crisis Watch: Unchanged
News up to:
sudantribune.com Dr. Machar should take a preemptive strike against his IO enemies 05/06
sudantribune.com Sudanese army vows to carry out more attack on S. Kordofan rebels 05/05
allafrica.com South Sudan: Opposition Fighters Attack Soldiers 05/03
allafrica.com South Sudan: China Donates U.S.$ 550,000 to Support South Sudan Peace Process 05/03
allafrica.com South Sudan: Security Clause Now Harder to Implement 05/03
theeastafrican.co.ke Security clause now harder to implement in South Sudan 05/02
allafrica.com Sudan: Security Frees Hostages From SPLM-N 05/02
nation.co.ke China donates Sh55m to boost South Sudan peace process 05/01
sudantribune.com SPLM-N acknowledges escape of government POWs in S Kordofan 05/01
sudantribune.com British warning regarding security situation in Khartoum “exaggerated”: FM 04/30
sudantribune.com Taban Deng has not resigned from SPLM-IO: Spokesperson 04/30
dailytimes.com.pk Sudan military plane crashes, five killed 04/30
theeastafrican.co.ke Former rebels, ex-detainees in President Salva Kiir’s Cabinet 04/30
allafrica.com Sudan: Rebels Announce Unilateral Ceasefire 04/29
sudantribune.com South Sudan forms transitional government of national unity 04/28
allafrica.com Sudan: 'Largest Defeat of Sudan Army in Years' 04/27
sudantribune.com University student killed by government supporters in Khartoum 04/27
borglobe.com Riak Machar lives as South Sudan's greatest tragedy 04/27
sudantribune.com S. Sudanese army, armed men clash in N. Bahr el Ghazal 04/27
theeastafrican.co.ke South Sudan rebel general returns to Juba ahead of top chief 04/25
sudantribune.com SPLM-N fighters repel new attacks in South Kordofan: Lodi 04/24
aljazeera.com Stage set for return of South Sudan's Riek Machar 04/22
allafrica.com Sudan: Sudan Students Under State Security Siege 04/22
sudantribune.com SPLA’s Malong says no amount of weapons will achieve regime change 04/21
sudantribune.com Rebels ties with South Sudan prevent them from peace: official 04/21
allafrica.com Sudan: 'Govt Forces Defeated in Blue Nile, Chopper Downed in Kordofan' - Rebels 04/20
sudantribune.com One student killed in clashes at University of Kordofan 04/19
sudantribune.com Two people killed in Bor night shooting 04/18
allafrica.com Sudan: South Kordofan - Rebels 'Destroy' Military Garrison 04/18
monitor.co.ug Machar postpones long-awaited Juba return 04/18
sudantribune.com British government warns citizens against traveling to S. Sudan 04/17
sudantribune.com SPLM-N claims shooting down Sudanese chopper in S Kordofan 04/17
sudantribune.com Sudan hopes new S. Sudanese gov’t implements peace agreement 04/16
nation.co.ke Machar planned arrival in Juba shrouded in mystery 04/16
globalsecurity.org Fighting Reported in South Sudan Ahead of Former Rebel Leader's Return 04/16
allafrica.com Sudan: Three Dead, Ongoing Air Raids in South Korofan, Blue Nile 04/15
isn.ethz.ch The Role of Ex-Rebel Parties in Building Peace 04/15
sudantribune.com SPLM-N rebels claim destroying army garrison in South Kordofan 04/15
sudantribune.com South Sudan’s official accuses SPLA-IO of looting cattle in Northern Liech state 04/15
voanews.com Fighting Reported in South Sudan Ahead of Former Rebel Leader's Return 04/15
globalsecurity.org Rebel Leader's Arrival in Juba Next Week in Question 04/15
sudantribune.com SPLM-N discusses governance and humanitarian issues in Tanzania 04/15
sudantribune.com South Sudanese rival forces clash in Unity region 04/14
sudantribune.com 3, 420 S. Sudanese soldiers deployed outside Juba: official 04/13
irinnews.org Can South Sudan’s peace deal stick? 04/13
allafrica.com Sudan: South Kordofan Rebels Accuse Army of Licensing Foreign Gold Traders 04/12
allafrica.com Sudan: UNHCR Starts Moving 70,000 Refugees From Yida 04/12
allafrica.com Sudan: Khartoum, Juba Relations Strained Over Rebel Claims 04/11
borglobe.com PCA-II Entitled South Sudanese Citizens to Live in Peace, War and Justice 04/11
allafrica.com Sudan: South Kordofan - SPLM-N Kills 'Dozens' of Soldiers 04/11
sudantribune.com SPLM-N accuses Sudanese army of indiscriminate bombardments in S. Kordofan 04/10
sudantribune.com SPLM-N counter-arracks government forces in S. Kordofan 04/09
allafrica.com South Sudan: Security Council Renews Targeted Sanctions 04/09
sudantribune.com Machar vows to resolve outstanding issues with President Kiir in Juba 04/09
sudantribune.com SPLA launches military operations against SPLA-IO forces in Bahr el Ghazal 04/09
sudantribune.com JMEC offers facilitation of first meeting between South Sudan’s rival leaders 04/07
sudantribune.com UN Security Council renews sanctions against those blocking peace in South Sudan 04/07
allafrica.com Sudan: Rebels Seize Materiel in Battle With National Army 04/07
sudantribune.com SPLM rebels claim new victories against gov’t troops in Sudan’s Two Areas 04/07
aljazeera.com Burying refugees who die in the Calais 'Jungle' 04/06
sudantribune.com SPLA admits attacking opposition forces around Wau 04/06
sudantribune.com Boma state authorities call for security on roads 04/05
sudantribune.com SPLM-N claims more victories in S. Kordofan and Blue Nile 04/03
allafrica.com Sudan: Students Wounded in Protest, Fighting in Sudan 04/01
sudantribune.com SPLM-N forces defeat government troops in fresh clashes: spokesperson 04/01
sudantribune.com Juba to sign final peace agreement with armed youth in WES 03/31
allafrica.com Sudan: One Killed, Two Injured As Fighting Continues in Nuba Mountains 03/30
sudantribune.com SPLM-N retakes Ugab area in South Kordofan: spokesperson 03/30
sudantribune.com UNMISS denies alleged failure to protect civilians in Malakal 03/30
globalsecurity.org UN chief welcomes signing by Sudanese Government of African Union roadmap agreement 03/30
sudantribune.com UN chief urges Sudanese opposition to sign Roadmap Agreement 03/29
allafrica.com Sudan: SPLM-N Areas 'Liberated' by Sudan Army 03/29
un.org UN chief welcomes signing by Sudanese Government of African Union roadmap agreement 03/29
allafrica.com Sudan: SPLM-N Report Major Govt. Attacks in South Kordofan 03/28
allafrica.com South Sudan: Inching Closer to a Unity Government 03/28
sudantribune.com Opposition’s military spokesman lashes out at SPLA spokesperson 03/28
allafrica.com Sudan: Influx From South Sudan Refugees in Western Sudan 03/28
sudantribune.com Sudanese army retakes strategic positions in S. Kordofan: official 03/28
aljazeera.com Hospitals targeted across South Sudan 03/27
sudantribune.com SPLM-N rebels say South Sudanese militiamen are fighting beside Sudanese troops 03/27
sudantribune.com Sudanese army denies bombing South Sudan’s Upper Nile 03/26
sudantribune.com Minnawi calls to campaign against Sudan roadmap 03/25
voanews.com Experts: Sudan Border Closure Would Have Financial Impact 03/25
sudantribune.com Sudan mortar attack kills two civilians in South Kordofan: rebels 03/25
sudantribune.com Sudan urges opposition groups to sign Roadmap Agreement 03/25
allafrica.com Sudan: Armed Forces Reveals Violation of Rebellion to Cease-Fire Declared By Presidency 03/24
sudantribune.com African Union Zuma’s gives opposition groups five days to sign Sudan roadmap 03/24
voanews.com South Sudan Fires Foreign Minister 03/24
turkishweekly.net African Union urges Sudan rebels to sign roadmap deal 03/24
sudantribune.com NUP leading figure criticizes Sudanese opposition for refusing to endorse Roadmap Agreement 03/23
borglobe.com The Return of Dangerous Generals in South Sudan 03/23
monitor.co.ug Fresh clashes force 2,800 S. Sudanese refugees into Uganda 03/22
africa-newsroom.com Japan supports UN humanitarian air service in Sudan 03/21
sudantribune.com Abiem East community disowns chairperson, names new leader 03/19
allafrica.com Sudan: Rebels Claim Victory in Darfur, Nuba Mountain Battles 03/18
turkishweekly.net New round of Sudan peace talks begins in Ethiopia 03/18
allafrica.com South Sudan: UN Should Create Rights Monitor 03/17
reuters.com Sudan threatens to close border with South Sudan again 03/17
un.org ‘Alarmed’ over violence in South Sudan, Security Council sets out steps for implementation of peace deal 03/17
sudantribune.com SPLA-N rebels shot down Sudanese unmanned plane 03/17