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Sudan - south

Conflict between autonomous South Sudan and northern government.

Summary

From SmallWarsJournal.com: Southern Sudan - The Four Theses:

Even before Sudan first gained its independence, in 1956, a separatist insurgency has existed in Southern Sudan. The root causes of this struggle - economic marginalization and political disenfranchisement - have never been adequately resolved. Twice this insurgency has boiled over into all-out civil war. The 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was the result of an international effort aimed at ending the period of conflict known as the Second Sudanese Civil War, a conflict which lasted from 1983 - 2005. The CPA was signed between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M). Given that the root causes were the same, this conflict was really just a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil War (1955 - 1973). However, unlike the first iteration, the Second Sudanese Civil War featured considerable regional support for the opposing belligerents. In effect, the Second Sudanese Civil War was as much an interstate war by proxy as it was an intrastate conflict.

The CPA provided for a level of autonomy for Southern Sudan (with a regional capital in Juba), and established the framework for a government of national unity (located in the country's capital, Khartoum). The CPA succeeded in all these respects. But like so many other well-intentioned efforts, the CPA carried the seeds of its own destruction - a 'poison pill.' In this case, the 'poison pill' is a key provision of the CPA that sets a date for Southern Sudan to hold a referendum on its future status - full union within Sudan, albeit with considerable autonomy, or independence. According to the terms of the CPA, the referendum was set to be held six years to the day following the signing of the CPA. Since the CPA was signed on January 9th, 2005; the referendum is set for January 9th, 2011.

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Stats:

Fund for Peace (FfP) Failed States Index: 113 Alert (worst is 120)
HIIK Conflict Barometer 2008: 4
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre Global Statistics : 1,935,000 IDPs
WFP Hunger Map: 26 % undernourished
Economist Intelligence Unit Sovereign Ratings: Rating C
International Crisis Group Crisis Watch: Unchanged
News up to:
un.org South Sudan: surge in Sudanese refugees pushes camp capacity to limit, warns UN 01/30
scoop.co.nz The United States Condemns the Terrorist Attacks in Egypt 01/30
allafrica.com Sudan: UNHCR - More Sudanese Refugees Arriving in South Sudan 01/30
sudantribune.com South Sudanese rebels accuse government of preparing new offensive 01/29
allafrica.com Sudan: Rebels Hold Six Bulgarian UN Aid Workers 01/29
allafrica.com Sudan: AU Chief Mediator On the Sudan Meets President Al-Bashir 01/29
reuters.com Sudan rebels to free Bulgarian aid workers this week: air carrier 01/29
allafrica.com South Sudan: Kiir Warns of Full-Scale War Against Rebels 01/28
turkishweekly.net Bulgarian aid workers held in Sudan 01/28
dw.de Sudan rebels hold six Bulgarian UN aid workers 01/28
voanews.com Bulgarian Aid Workers Held in Sudan 01/28
reuters.com Sudanese rebels detain six Bulgarians: Bulgarian foreign ministry 01/28
voanews.com South Sudan President: Wording in Arusha Agreement was Changed 01/28
voanews.com Claims of New Rebel Group in South Sudan 01/28
sudantribune.com Senior S. Sudan army officer arrested after troops abandon positions during rebel clashes 01/28
foxnews.com UN food agency says 6 Bulgarian contractors in helicopter crew missing in Sudan 01/28
turkishpress.com Sudan's Bashir to woo rebels to join national dialogue 01/27
sudantribune.com SPLM-N rebels shoot WFP helicopter in S. Kordofan 01/26
diplomatie.gouv.fr Sudan – Renewed bombing of the hospital operated by Doctors Without Borders (20.01.15) 01/26
sudantribune.com 11 killed, scores injured in S. Sudan ambush 01/26
allafrica.com South Sudan: Ban Welcomes 'Reunification' Accord Signed Among Opposing Factions 01/26
sudantribune.com S. Sudan downplays defection of state TV director 01/25
sudantribune.com S. Sudanese warring factions will tackle accountability and justice: spokesperson 01/25
sudantribune.com S. Sudan rebels deny destroying oil-field facilities 01/24
theeastafrican.co.ke Hope for peace in S Sudan after Arusha talks unite belligerents 01/24
aljazeera.com Rights group accuses Sudan army of targeting hospital 01/24
sudantribune.com South Sudan TV top official declares defection to rebels 01/24
allafrica.com Tanzania: New Era Dawns in South Sudan 01/23
en.people.cn UN chief hails peace agreement among South Sudan's rival factions 01/23
globalsecurity.org Ban welcomes 'reunification' accord signed among opposing South Sudanese factions 01/23
sudantribune.com South Sudan army abandons positions after rebel clashes 01/23
sudantribune.com South Sudanese rebels call on president Kiir to stand down 01/23
allafrica.com Sudan: Women Take to Streets in Jonglei to Protest Against Bor Governor 01/23
allafrica.com Uganda: Time to Heal South Sudan 01/23
allafrica.com Tanzania: Blackout Hits as South Sudan Pact Signed 01/23
sudantribune.com TEXT: Agreement on the reunification of the SPLM 01/23
allafrica.com South Sudan: Rivals Sign Pact to Reunify Ruling SPLM Party 01/22
theeastafrican.co.ke South Sudan warring factions sign new peace deal in Tanzania 01/22
allafrica.com Tanzania: Tanzania Hosts South Sudan Peace Talks 01/22
allafrica.com East Africa: South Sudan Leaders Reach Peace Agreement 01/22
dw.de South Sudan's leaders embark on new peace drive 01/22
allafrica.com Sudan: Rebels Claim Control Over Area Near Talodi in Sudan's South Kordofan 01/22
turkishpress.com Sudan army denies rebel capture of Sudanese town 01/22
sudantribune.com Women take to streets in Jonglei to protest against Bor governor 01/22
allafrica.com Sudan: Rebels Gain Ground in Nuba Mountains 01/21
dw.de South Sudan rivals sign pact to reunify ruling SPLM party 01/21
sudantribune.com S. Sudan accuses rebels of setting fire to oil facilities 01/21
sudantribune.com SPLM-N captures now position in South Kordofan: rebel spokesperson 01/21
voanews.com South Sudan Army Says Still Fighting Rebels in Lakes State 01/20
sudantribune.com SPLM-N calls on Islamic forces to wash their hands from the Sudanese regime 01/20
sudantribune.com S. Sudan’s Machar in Tanzania for intra-SPLM party dialogue 01/18
allafrica.com South Sudan: Army Says Oil Fields Under Full Protection 01/18
monitor.co.ug Inside Kony’s base – Part II 01/17
sudantribune.com South Sudanese rebels say peace is priority not elections 01/17
sudantribune.com SPLM-N recaptures two areas in South Kordofan : rebel spokesperson 01/16
sudantribune.com Upper Nile governor downplays opposition threats to elections 01/15
sudantribune.com SAF & SPLM-N issue conflicting accounts of S. Kordofan clashes 01/15
globalsecurity.org More Than 50 Killed in South Sudan Clashes 01/14
af.reuters.com Sudan army says retakes areas from rebels in Darfur, South Kordofan 01/13
punchng.com Sudan recaptures key areas from rebels 01/13
allafrica.com Tanzania: Kikwete to Grace Resumption of S. Sudan Peace Talks 01/12
aljazeera.com Sudan recaptures Darfur areas from rebels 01/12
modernghana.com UN wants release of AU-led South Sudan inquiry 01/12
af.reuters.com Sudan army says retakes areas from rebels in Darfur, South Kordofan 01/12
sudantribune.com Sudan army says it recaptured four areas in S. Kordofan & N. Darfur 01/12
modernghana.com Sudan troops battle rebels in war-torn South Kordofan 01/12
sudantribune.com SPLM-N says it repulsed SAF attacks in S. Kordofan, Blue Nile 01/11
sudantribune.com Senior rebel commander slams UN human rights report on Bentiu massacre 01/11
allafrica.com Sudan: Rebels Call for Election Delay 01/11
sudantribune.com Rebels call for international support to Sudan’s dialogue 01/09
modernghana.com UN sends team as fighting surges in Darfur 01/08
sudantribune.com Hundreds of civilians killed in Unity and Jonglei states: UN 01/08
sudantribune.com South Sudan warring parties threaten to resume hostilities 01/07
sudantribune.com S. Sudanese soldiers test new weapons in Jonglei 01/07
sudantribune.com N. Bahr el Ghazal officials warn over divisions in SPLM party 01/07
sudantribune.com South Sudanese rebels criticise army partisanship - spokesperson 01/07
sudantribune.com S. Sudan army general warns rebels over attacks 01/06
sudantribune.com S. Sudan’s warring parties in renewed military clashes 01/05
voanews.com New Fighting Rocks South Sudan Oil States 01/05
sudantribune.com China to hold consultative conference on S. Sudan in Khartoum 01/05
sudantribune.com South Sudan rebels seek separate relief operations 01/04
allafrica.com South Sudan: Rebels Appoint Top Field Commanders 01/04
allafrica.com Sudan: SPLM-N Pledges to Destroy Its Stockpiles of Anti-Personnel Landmines 01/03
sudantribune.com South Sudan: rebels appoint top field commanders 01/03
sudantribune.com South Sudan peace concert held in Ethiopia 01/03
sudantribune.com SPLM-N pledges to destroy its stockpiles of anti-personnel landmines 01/02
sudantribune.com South Sudan army arrests soldiers linked to new year shooting 01/02
allafrica.com Sudan: Juba and Khartoum Agree to De-Escalate Tensions 01/02
sudantribune.com Juba and Khartoum agree to deescalate tensions 01/01
allafrica.com South Sudan: Rebels Establish Military Command 01/01
sudantribune.com South Sudan rebels establish military command, create 21 states 12/31
sudantribune.com South Sudanese rebels acquire sophisticated weapons - official 12/30
allafrica.com Sudan: SPLM-N Rebels Say Government Warplane Crashed in S. Kordofan 12/28
allafrica.com Sudan: SPLM Youth Demand Support for War-Affected States 12/28
allafrica.com Uganda: Rebels Decry Museveni's Non-Withdrawal Position 12/28
allafrica.com South Africa: Many Killed in Inter-Clan Battle 12/28
sudantribune.com SPLM-N rebels to release POWs as Sudan's ruling party welcomes 12/28
allafrica.com Sudan: Clashes Erupt Between Villagers and Army 12/27
sudantribune.com SPLM-N rebels say government warplane crashed in S. Kordofan 12/27
allafrica.com South Sudan: Peace Envoy Urges IGAD to Push Peace 12/27