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Sudan - south

Conflict between autonomous South Sudan and northern government.

Summary

From SmallWarsJournal.com: Southern Sudan - The Four Theses:

Even before Sudan first gained its independence, in 1956, a separatist insurgency has existed in Southern Sudan. The root causes of this struggle - economic marginalization and political disenfranchisement - have never been adequately resolved. Twice this insurgency has boiled over into all-out civil war. The 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was the result of an international effort aimed at ending the period of conflict known as the Second Sudanese Civil War, a conflict which lasted from 1983 - 2005. The CPA was signed between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M). Given that the root causes were the same, this conflict was really just a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil War (1955 - 1973). However, unlike the first iteration, the Second Sudanese Civil War featured considerable regional support for the opposing belligerents. In effect, the Second Sudanese Civil War was as much an interstate war by proxy as it was an intrastate conflict.

The CPA provided for a level of autonomy for Southern Sudan (with a regional capital in Juba), and established the framework for a government of national unity (located in the country's capital, Khartoum). The CPA succeeded in all these respects. But like so many other well-intentioned efforts, the CPA carried the seeds of its own destruction - a 'poison pill.' In this case, the 'poison pill' is a key provision of the CPA that sets a date for Southern Sudan to hold a referendum on its future status - full union within Sudan, albeit with considerable autonomy, or independence. According to the terms of the CPA, the referendum was set to be held six years to the day following the signing of the CPA. Since the CPA was signed on January 9th, 2005; the referendum is set for January 9th, 2011.

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Stats:

Fund for Peace (FfP) Failed States Index: 113 Alert (worst is 120)
HIIK Conflict Barometer 2008: 4
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre Global Statistics : 1,935,000 IDPs
WFP Hunger Map: 26 % undernourished
Economist Intelligence Unit Sovereign Ratings: Rating C
International Crisis Group Crisis Watch: Unchanged
News up to:
theeastafrican.co.ke Help, there’s a chronic divorcee after my seat – and he’s well armed! 12/20
allafrica.com Sudan: Rebels Repel Attack by Govt Soldiers 12/20
sudantribune.com Jonglei state residents rally for peace 12/19
allafrica.com South Sudan: S. Sudanese Rebels Renew Calls for President Kiir to Step Aside 12/19
allafrica.com Sudan: JEM Denies South Sudan's Support to Sudanese Rebels 12/19
sudantribune.com S. Sudan army divided over death sentence verdict 12/19
sudantribune.com South Sudanese rebels renew calls for president Kiir to step aside 12/18
sudantribune.com South Sudan rivals resume peace talks in Ethiopian capital 12/18
voanews.com Sudan School Becomes Target of Aerial Attacks 12/18
sudantribune.com Uganda warns citizens against danger on Nimule-Juba road 12/17
nvonews.com Security Council members disappointed by South Sudan crisis 12/16
allafrica.com Sudan: Govt Forces Accused of Gang Rape in Blue Nile State 12/16
sudantribune.com S. Sudan talks to resume Wednesday as rebels carry out fresh attacks 12/16
allafrica.com South Sudan: Political Failures, Public Expectations and How to Bring Peace 12/15
reuters.com Sudan to witness more violence after ICC shelves Darfur probe: opposition 12/15
modernghana.com HRW accuses Sudan army, allies of Blue Nile killings, rapes 12/15
modernghana.com Sudan: Soldiers, Militias Killing, Raping Civilians / Urgent Need for UN, AU Investigation in Blue Nile, Southern Kordofan 12/15
sudantribune.com HRW calls for investigation into Blue Nile rape claims 12/15
reuters.com Sudan government forces accused of gang rape in Blue Nile state: TRFN 12/15
allafrica.com South Sudan: Rebels Agree to Share Power 12/15
stripes.com South Sudan: War and misery continue 1 year later 12/14
sudantribune.com We have “documented evidence” over Juba support to Sudanese rebels : Khartoum 12/14
allafrica.com Sudan: UN Security Council Warns Over Violence in Sudan's Two Areas 12/12
allafrica.com Sudan: Rebels Attack Convoys in Central Darfur, South Kordofan 12/12
sputniknews.com UN Calls on Sudan, South Sudan to Discuss Security in Disputed Region 12/12
sudantribune.com SPLA-N rebels capture three areas in South Kordofan – spokesperson 12/12
allafrica.com Sudan: Security Council Welcomes Talks Between Leaders of Sudan, South Sudan 12/12
sudantribune.com S. Sudan army, armed youth clash in Upper Nile 12/12
modernghana.com Sudan minister vows to defeat rebels after fruitless talks 12/12
allafrica.com Sudan: Juba Calls On Sudan to Refrain From Attacks On Abyei 12/12
sudantribune.com Sudan army launches second phase of military campaign against rebels 12/11
sudantribune.com Juba calls on Sudan to refrain from attacks on Abyei 12/11
sudantribune.com UN Security Council warns over violence in Sudan’s Two Areas 12/11
un.org Security Council welcomes talks between leaders of Sudan, South Sudan 12/11
allafrica.com South Sudan: UNMISS Destroys Weapons Seized in Displaced Camps 12/10
sudantribune.com Sudan’s security agency says forces ready for final showdown with rebels 12/10
sudantribune.com War threatens existence of wildlife species in South Sudan 12/10
allafrica.com Sudan: Talks On Sudan's Two Areas Collapse, Fighting in South Kordofan 12/09
reuters.com Sudan ceasefire talks end without deal as violence increases 12/09
turkishpress.com UN destroys arms seized from displaced S. Sudanese 12/09
sudantribune.com The case of Equatorian rebellion in South Sudan conflict 12/09
sudantribune.com SPLM-N attacks S. Kordofan’s capital with Katyusha rockets 12/08
bbc.co.uk Will Sudan ever find peace? 12/08
sudantribune.com SPLM-N says Khartoum seeks to collapse Sudan’s peace talks 12/07
sudantribune.com S. Sudan army denies reports of “missing” officer 12/07
turkishpress.com Talks between Sudan, SPLM-N rebels hit dead-end: Delegate 12/07
sudantribune.com Sudan army to deploy forces across the country: spokesperson 12/07
sudantribune.com SPLM replaces defected members in Jonglei 12/07
sudantribune.com Top S. Sudanese army general goes missing amid rising tensions in Juba 12/06
allafrica.com South Sudan: Rebels Hold Consultative Conference On Peace Process 12/05
allafrica.com Tanzania: Membe, Kinana On South Sudan Peace Mission 12/05
allafrica.com Sudan: Opposition, Rebel Forces Sign Joint Declaration for Peace and Democracy in Sudan 12/04
sudantribune.com S. Sudan appoints new Abyei oversight committee co-chair 12/04
sudantribune.com S. Sudanese rebels hold consultative conference on peace process 12/04
chinadaily.com.cn South Sudan shaken by 'sustained' fighting: UN 12/04
modernghana.com New Sudan opposition alliance formed 12/03
sudantribune.com Nuer communities to commemorate conflict victims 12/03
sudantribune.com Opposition, rebel forces sign joint declaration for peace and democracy in Sudan 12/03
reuters.com Sudan's army reports more clashes with rebels in south as talks on hold 12/03
modernghana.com Sudan troops beat back rebel attacks in Kordofan, kill 50 12/02
sudantribune.com SPLM W. Bahr el Ghazal office denounces rebellion 12/02
sudantribune.com Sudanese army and SPLM-N swap allegations over initiating recent clashes 12/01
stripes.com Sudanese Peoples Liberation Army vows to end rebellion in Greater Upper Nile region 11/30
sudantribune.com SPLA vows to end rebellion in Greater Upper Nile region 11/29
allafrica.com Sudan: Over Hundred Killed in Tribal Clashes 11/29
aljazeera.com Fleeing the horrors of South Sudan fighting 11/29
online.wsj.com Dozens Killed in Sudan Clashes 11/28
turkishweekly.net Tribal clashes kill at least 130 in Sudan 11/28
bbc.co.uk Sudan clashes kill more than 100 11/27
reuters.com At least 133 killed in tribal clashes in Sudan: tribe leader 11/27
voanews.com Tribal Clashes Kill at Least 130 in Sudan 11/27
sudantribune.com South Sudanese rebels accuse government of renewed hostilities 11/27
sudantribune.com UN declines transporting S. Sudanese rebels for consultations 11/27
sudantribune.com S. Sudan rebel delegation meets Museveni in Kampala 11/27
sudantribune.com S. Sudanese rebels dismiss alleged membership in UN compounds 11/26
sudantribune.com S. Sudanese rebels refute formation of separate movement for Equatorians 11/26
voanews.com South Sudan Opposition Alleges New SPLA Attacks 11/26
strategypage.com SUDAN: Peace In Our Time 11/25
sudantribune.com S. Sudan political leaders demand peaceful end to conflict 11/25
sudantribune.com Sudan's NCP says talks with Darfur rebels are limited to ceasefire 11/25
sudantribune.com SPLM-N launches attacks against Sudanese army positions in Blue Nile state 11/24
allafrica.com South Sudan: Situating Transitional Justice in the Context of South Sudan 11/24
sudantribune.com Sudan calls on Darfur rebels to embrace contentious Doha framework document 11/23
sudantribune.com Sudanese civil society groups support African efforts for comprehensive solution 11/22
sudantribune.com Sudan rebels says satisfied from SPLM-N positions and prepared for Darfur talks 11/22
sudantribune.com South Sudan diplomats defect to SPLM-IO rebels 11/21
ndtv.com UN Pleads for Release of Abducted Staff in South Sudan 11/20
sudantribune.com WFP demands safe release of staff abducted in S. Sudan 11/20
sudantribune.com S. Sudanese rebels downplay reconciliation talks between government and former detainees 11/19
sudantribune.com South Sudan rebels say not targeting VP Wani Igga 11/19
sudantribune.com W. Bahr el Ghazal cabinet briefed at peace talks 11/18
sudantribune.com Sudan’s national dialogue mechanism asks Ghandour to prepare for talks with rebels 11/18
allafrica.com South Sudan: Scores Injured as IDPs Clash in Upper Nile State - UN 11/18
timeslive.co.za Sudan and rebels end talks, mediators hopeful of positive deal 11/18
globalsecurity.org Sudan government and rebels suspend peace talks 11/18
sudantribune.com Scores injured as IDPs clash in Upper Nile state: UN 11/17
globalsecurity.org South Sudan warring rivals in Ethiopia for peace talks 11/16
sudantribune.com South Sudanese journalist freed after three days in detention 11/16
sudantribune.com Rival S. Sudan forces begin training on implementing ceasefire 11/16
sudantribune.com SPLM-N, gov't delegations trade accusation of stalling talks over Sudan Two Areas 11/15