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Sudan - south

Conflict between autonomous South Sudan and northern government.

Summary

From SmallWarsJournal.com: Southern Sudan - The Four Theses:

Even before Sudan first gained its independence, in 1956, a separatist insurgency has existed in Southern Sudan. The root causes of this struggle - economic marginalization and political disenfranchisement - have never been adequately resolved. Twice this insurgency has boiled over into all-out civil war. The 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was the result of an international effort aimed at ending the period of conflict known as the Second Sudanese Civil War, a conflict which lasted from 1983 - 2005. The CPA was signed between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M). Given that the root causes were the same, this conflict was really just a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil War (1955 - 1973). However, unlike the first iteration, the Second Sudanese Civil War featured considerable regional support for the opposing belligerents. In effect, the Second Sudanese Civil War was as much an interstate war by proxy as it was an intrastate conflict.

The CPA provided for a level of autonomy for Southern Sudan (with a regional capital in Juba), and established the framework for a government of national unity (located in the country's capital, Khartoum). The CPA succeeded in all these respects. But like so many other well-intentioned efforts, the CPA carried the seeds of its own destruction - a 'poison pill.' In this case, the 'poison pill' is a key provision of the CPA that sets a date for Southern Sudan to hold a referendum on its future status - full union within Sudan, albeit with considerable autonomy, or independence. According to the terms of the CPA, the referendum was set to be held six years to the day following the signing of the CPA. Since the CPA was signed on January 9th, 2005; the referendum is set for January 9th, 2011.

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Stats:

Fund for Peace (FfP) Failed States Index: 113 Alert (worst is 120)
HIIK Conflict Barometer 2008: 4
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre Global Statistics : 1,935,000 IDPs
WFP Hunger Map: 26 % undernourished
Economist Intelligence Unit Sovereign Ratings: Rating C
International Crisis Group Crisis Watch: Unchanged
News up to:
bbc.co.uk South Sudan treason charges dropped 04/24
aljazeera.com S Sudan rebels say closing in on oil fields 04/24
modernghana.com South Sudan rebels claim to be closing in on oil fields 04/24
reuters.com Embattled South Sudan president replaces army chief 04/24
allafrica.com South Sudan: 'Matter of Time' Before Army Retakes Bentiu, South Sudan Official Says 04/23
punchng.com Obasanjo-led peace panel arrives South Sudan 04/23
allafrica.com South Sudan: Rebels Say On 'Rescue Mission' to Bor 04/23
allafrica.com South Sudan: Army Admits Losing County to Rebels 04/23
cnn.com UN: Hundreds killed in mosque 04/23
allafrica.com South Sudan: Mediators Delay Peace Talks - Rebels 04/23
aljazeera.com South Sudan's massacre among many 04/23
sudantribune.com Darfuri traders in Wau stage peaceful protest after Bentiu killings 04/23
sudantribune.com South Sudan rebels claim capture of Renk but military and MPs deny 04/23
sudantribune.com South Sudanese rebels say on "rescue mission" to Bor 04/22
cnn.com U.N.: South Sudan rebels separate residents by ethnicity, kill hundreds 04/22
turkishpress.com SPLM splinter group elects S. Sudan's Machar as leader 04/22
voanews.com 'Matter of Time' Before Army Retakes Bentiu, South Sudan Official Says 04/22
allafrica.com South Sudan: Rebels Deny Killing Civilians in Bentiu 04/22
modernghana.com Distrust as Sudan's South Kordofan peace talks resume 04/22
theeastafrican.co.ke South Sudan rebels blamed for massacres push offensive 04/22
sudantribune.com S. Sudan army admits Machar forces control Mayom county 04/22
sudantribune.com S. Sudan army says it repulsed multiple rebel attacks 04/22
allafrica.com South Sudan: UN Says Rebels Killed Hundreds of Civilians 04/22
sudantribune.com South Sudanese rebels call for federal state formation 04/22
sudantribune.com Unity state: More than 200 civilians massacred in targetted killings, says UN 04/22
sudantribune.com Mediators delay South Sudan peace talks: rebels 04/22
voanews.com UN Says Rebels Kill Hundeds of Civilians in South Sudan 04/21
voanews.com UN Accuses South Sudan Opposition Forces of Atrocities in Bentiu 04/21
modernghana.com China 'very concerned' over workers kidnapped in Sudan 04/21
voanews.com UN: South Sudan Rebels Killed People for Ethnicity, Nationality 04/21
allafrica.com South Sudan: Machar Rebels Claim Capture of Mayom Strategic Town 04/21
allafrica.com South Sudan: UN Mission in South Sudan Condemns Ethnic Killings in Bentiu 04/21
rt.com UN: South Sudan rebels killed hundreds in ethnic cleansing of captured oil city 04/21
globalsecurity.org UN: Rebels Massacred 'Hundreds' of Civilians in South Sudan 04/21
turkishpress.com UNMISS decries targeted killings in rebel-held Bentiu 04/21
nzherald.co.nz Hundreds killed by South Sudan rebels 04/21
scmp.com Chinese, Algerian oil workers abducted in Sudan's West Kordofan province 04/20
aljazeera.com Is South Sudan on the verge of collapse? 04/20
allafrica.com Sudan: Opposition Reiterates Call to Overthrow Bashir 04/20
sudantribune.com South Sudanese rebels deny killing of Darfurian traders in Unity state 04/20
radiodabanga.org Oil engineers abducted in Sudan’s South Kordofan 04/20
news24.com S Sudan on brink of collapse as war rages 04/20
sudantribune.com S. Sudan army says fighting rebels attempting to control oil fields 04/19
dw.de Sudan courts German investors 04/19
modernghana.com Gunmen abduct foreigners from Sudan oilfield: army 04/19
ndtv.com South Sudan on brink of collapse as war rages 04/19
theeastafrican.co.ke Juba slowly picking up the pieces as guns go silent but Bor, Malakal and Bentiu still at war 04/19
sudantribune.com S. Sudan rebels claim further victories in Unity state 04/19
sudantribune.com Sudanese opposition reiterates calls for overthrowing Bashir regime 04/19
allafrica.com South Sudan: Army Says Repulsed Rebel Attempt to Overrun Renk County 04/18
rt.com UN base in South Sudan attacked by ‘peaceful’ mob, dozens dead 04/18
allafrica.com South Sudan: Govt Says U.S. Sanctions Could Hasten Peace Process 04/18
allafrica.com Sudan: SPLM-N Rebels Deny SAF Recapture of Eastern S. Kordofan 04/18
sudantribune.com Rebels aided by foreign mercenaries in S. Sudan's Bentiu: SPLA 04/17
punchng.com Heavy fighting in South Sudan, refugees flee 04/17
allafrica.com South Sudan: Officials Blame Bureaucratic Bungling for Fall of Bentiu Town 04/17
sudantribune.com SPLM-N rebels deny SAF recapture of eastern S. Kordofan 04/17
huffingtonpost.com Why Is the World Abandoning South Sudan? 04/17
sudantribune.com S. Sudan army says repulsed rebel attempt to overrun Renk county 04/17
allafrica.com Sudan: Massive Mobilization of Armed Forces in the Nuba Mountains 04/16
allafrica.com South Sudan: Opposition Says It Has Seized Bentiu - Again 04/16
sudantribune.com Former deputy defence minister says S. Sudan will never be the same 04/16
sudantribune.com Rebels claim killing hundreds including top army general in Bentiu 04/16
sudantribune.com Sudanese army clears rebels from eastern S. Kordofan: spokesperson 04/16
turkishpress.com S. Kordofan's eastern mountains 'rebels-free': Sudan 04/16
turkishpress.com Fighting in S. Sudan's Bentiu; U.N. shelters 9000 04/15
sudantribune.com South Sudan army, rebels battle for control of Unity state’s Bentiu 04/15
allafrica.com South Sudan: Army Denies Attacking Rebels in Unity State 04/15
allafrica.com Africa: 'No News From Malakal' 04/15
enoughproject.org Human Security Alert: Massive Mobilization of Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) in the Nuba Mountains 04/15
sudantribune.com Abyei: Peace cannot be achieved through partial solutions 04/15
sudantribune.com Sudan denies training South Sudan rebels 04/15
voanews.com South Sudan Opposition Says it Has Seized Bentiu - Again 04/15
allafrica.com South Sudan: ANC Joins South Sudan Peace Process 04/15
allafrica.com Rebels Dismiss Alleged Arrest of Their Leaders in Ethiopia 04/14
sudantribune.com Heavy fighting erupts in South Sudan’s Unity state 04/14
turkishpress.com 64,000 S. Sudanese refugees in Sudan: UN 04/14
turkishpress.com Intra-SPLM dialogue postponed: Source 04/14
sudantribune.com Rebellion is declining in Darfur, says Sudan’s defence minister 04/14
turkishpress.com U.N. envoy arrives in Sudan for peace talks 04/14
sudantribune.com S. Sudan army denies attacking rebels in Unity state 04/14
allafrica.com Sudan: Govt Ready for Deal on Blue Nile, S. Kordofan 04/13
allafrica.com South Sudan: Rebels Accuse Egypt of Supplying Arms Govt 04/13
sudantribune.com Sudanese government and SPLM-N rebels to resume talks next week 04/13
sudantribune.com South Sudan rebels deny rejection of interim government proposal 04/13
sudantribune.com Lawmakers tell Upper Nile governor, ministers to return to Malakal 04/12
sudantribune.com Khartoum ready to reach a deal on Sudan’s Two Areas, negotiator 04/12
allafrica.com South Sudan: Politician Declares Innocence in Alleged Coup Plot 04/12
sudantribune.com Rebels accuse Egypt of supplying arms to S. Sudan government 04/12
sudantribune.com S. Sudanese rebels dismiss alleged arrest of their leaders in Ethiopia 04/12
sudantribune.com IGAD ceasefire monitors commence operations in South Sudan 04/12
voanews.com South Sudan Politician Declares Innocence in Alleged Coup Plot 04/11
allafrica.com South Sudan: UN Mission Reaffirms Commitment to Protecting Civilians At Bases 04/10
sudantribune.com South Sudan army claims withdrawal from Manyo county was tactical 04/10
sudantribune.com South Sudan's former detainees call for interim leadership 04/10
scoop.co.nz South Sudan: UN Commitment to Protecting Civilians at Bases 04/09
globalsecurity.org South Sudan: UN mission reaffirms commitment to protecting civilians at bases 04/09
allafrica.com South Sudan: Man Loses Everything, but Finds Peace Most Important 04/09
sudantribune.com Former South Sudan army commander denies link to coup attempt 04/08
sudantribune.com SPLM former detainees excluded from South Sudan peace talks 04/07