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Sudan - south

Conflict between autonomous South Sudan and northern government.

Summary

From SmallWarsJournal.com: Southern Sudan - The Four Theses:

Even before Sudan first gained its independence, in 1956, a separatist insurgency has existed in Southern Sudan. The root causes of this struggle - economic marginalization and political disenfranchisement - have never been adequately resolved. Twice this insurgency has boiled over into all-out civil war. The 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was the result of an international effort aimed at ending the period of conflict known as the Second Sudanese Civil War, a conflict which lasted from 1983 - 2005. The CPA was signed between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M). Given that the root causes were the same, this conflict was really just a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil War (1955 - 1973). However, unlike the first iteration, the Second Sudanese Civil War featured considerable regional support for the opposing belligerents. In effect, the Second Sudanese Civil War was as much an interstate war by proxy as it was an intrastate conflict.

The CPA provided for a level of autonomy for Southern Sudan (with a regional capital in Juba), and established the framework for a government of national unity (located in the country's capital, Khartoum). The CPA succeeded in all these respects. But like so many other well-intentioned efforts, the CPA carried the seeds of its own destruction - a 'poison pill.' In this case, the 'poison pill' is a key provision of the CPA that sets a date for Southern Sudan to hold a referendum on its future status - full union within Sudan, albeit with considerable autonomy, or independence. According to the terms of the CPA, the referendum was set to be held six years to the day following the signing of the CPA. Since the CPA was signed on January 9th, 2005; the referendum is set for January 9th, 2011.

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Stats:

Fund for Peace (FfP) Failed States Index: 113 Alert (worst is 120)
HIIK Conflict Barometer 2008: 4
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre Global Statistics : 1,935,000 IDPs
WFP Hunger Map: 26 % undernourished
Economist Intelligence Unit Sovereign Ratings: Rating C
International Crisis Group Crisis Watch: Unchanged
News up to:
voanews.com South Sudan’s Riek Machar Calls for Armed Struggle 09/26
sudantribune.com Machar’s faction calls for armed resistance against “regime” in Juba 09/25
sudantribune.com South Sudanese army and rebels clash in oil-rich Unity state 09/25
france24.com South Sudan rebel chief urges armed resistance against government 09/24
sudantribune.com Salva Kiir discusses Sudan’s security deal with SPLM-N rebels 09/24
sudantribune.com UNHCR condemns attacks on refugee settlement in S. Sudan’s Equatoria 09/22
sudantribune.com South Sudan to dispatch officials to Sudan over security matters 09/22
hrw.org The Sudanese government should investigate and prosecute those responsible for human rights violations 09/21
sudantribune.com 30 SPLM-IO members in Egypt defect to government 09/21
sudantribune.com Sudan reiterates rejection for humanitarian access from abroad 09/20
sudantribune.com Minnawi group urges Washington not to lift sanctions on Sudan 09/20
allafrica.com South Sudan: Elites Wined and Dined As the Country Burned 09/19
allafrica.com East Africa: South Sudanese Generals Splash Money in Uganda 09/19
allafrica.com Sudan: Misseriya, Hamar Conflict in West Kordofan Subsides 09/19
sudantribune.com S. Sudan army claims UN peacekeepers harbouring rebels in Juba 09/19
reuters.com Sudan threatens to close border with South Sudan within days 09/18
dw.com South Sudanese women continue to face violence 09/16
sudantribune.com South Sudan president extends invitation to South African President 09/16
sudantribune.com SPLM-IO leadership to meet in Khartoum: Spokesman 09/16
allafrica.com Our Position Is Neutral, the Fighting Is Between Two Brothers - Amb. Fesseha 09/15
acjps.org EVENT: Sudan’s entrenched crises and & the role of the Human Rights Council 09/14
sudantribune.com SPLM-IO blames government over renewed clashes in Wau 09/14
sudantribune.com SPLM-N welcomes new ideas on humanitarian access as Khartoum downplays 09/13
sudantribune.com South Sudan army denies responsibility for July clashes in Juba 09/13
sudantribune.com Nearly 250,000 S. Sudanese living in Sudan: UNHCR 09/12
allafrica.com Sudan: The UN Has Failed Its Peacekeepers 09/12
sudantribune.com SPLM-IO “appreciates” UN report implicating Kiir, Malong in Juba violence 09/11
sudantribune.com SPLA denies top leadership involvement in July violence outbreak 09/11
aljazeera.com The UN has failed its peacekeepers in S Sudan 09/10
theeastafrican.co.ke South Sudan rebels get emergency UN aid in DR Congo 09/08
sudantribune.com Al-Bashir announces release of child soldiers, vows to consider release of POWs 09/07
sudantribune.com S. Sudan army ready to expel Sudanese rebels: spokesperson 09/07
sudantribune.com EU denies funding Sudanese militia to combat illegal migration 09/06
sudantribune.com SPLM-IO says Machar would not be soon in Juba, blames IGAD Plus 09/06
sudantribune.com Senior SPLM-IO official says opposition to negotiate foreign force deployment 09/05
sudantribune.com UN expert urges Sudan to create conducive environment for dialogue 09/05
allafrica.com South Sudan: Machar Reaches Out to Rebels to Salvage Fortunes 09/05
allafrica.com South Sudan: Govt Consents to Deployment of UN Security Council-Mandated Regional Protection Force 09/05
allafrica.com Sudan: Memorial Protest Against War in Blue Nile 09/05
sudantribune.com Khartoum renews call for humanitarian agreement in Sudan’s Two Areas 09/03
sudantribune.com Rival South Sudanese forces clash on Juba-Torit road 09/02
sudantribune.com Kenyatta tells Kiir South Sudanese need peace, not war 08/31
sudantribune.com Court convicts 60 South Sudanese soldiers for murder 08/30
borglobe.com Chinese weapons being supplied to both sides of Sudan-South Sudan conflict 08/30
sudantribune.com SPLM-IO says peace not possible with President Kiir 08/30
nation.co.ke Uncertain future awaits troubled S. Sudan and sacked VP Machar 08/30
sudantribune.com Trial of detained Christian pastors resumes in the Sudanese capital 08/29
sudantribune.com Sudan’s opposition NCF underlines support for peace talks 08/28
sudantribune.com SPLM-N urges U.S. envoy to raise case of detained pastors with Sudanese government 08/27
aljazeera.com South Kordofan: The forgotten prisoners 08/27
globalsecurity.org South Sudan's Machar discharged from hospital in Khartoum 08/26
enoughproject.org South Sudan’s Peace Agreement Faces Considerable Challenges on its First Anniversary 08/26
somalilandpress.com SPLA North tries to return POWs; claims they were blocked by Khartoum 08/26
allafrica.com South Sudan: 'Abstain From Politics,' Ex-Rebel Leader Told 08/25
aljazeera.com The War the World Forgot 08/25
borglobe.com Former General Secretary Pagan Amum has Gone Amok 08/23
sudantribune.com South Sudan asks for Khartoum technical assistance to resume oil production 08/23
sudantribune.com Machar in Khartoum for “medical treatment”, says Sudan’s Minister of Information 08/23
somalilandpress.com Al Jazeera visits the war the world forgot in the Nuba Mountains in Sudan 08/22
somalilandpress.com Al Jazeera visits the war the world forgot in the... 08/22
sudantribune.com Over 100 soldiers killed in South Sudan’s Jonglei state 08/22
sudantribune.com Trial of Christian pastors begins in Khartoum 08/21
france24.com S.Sudan opposition leader Riek Machar flees country 08/18
allafrica.com South Sudan: Spokesman - Machar 'Evacuated' 08/18
dw.com South Sudan opposition leader Machar flees 08/18
reuters.com South Sudan opposition leader Riek Machar has left country: spokesman 08/18
hosted.ap.org South Sudan rebel leader has fled country, spokesman says 08/18
foxnews.com South Sudan rebel leader flees country 08/18
aljazeera.com South Sudan opposition leader flees county 08/18
aljazeera.com South Sudan opposition leader Riek Machar flees to DRC 08/18
africa-newsroom.com 37,200 South Sudanese Sheltering in UN House Protection Site in Juba 08/17
allafrica.com Sudan: 'Khartoum Cause of Peace Talks Impasse' - Sudan Opposition 08/17
sudantribune.com Over 37,000 S. Sudanese sheltering at UN House in Juba: IOM 08/16
allafrica.com Sudan: Hopes of Peace Dashed As Latest Negotiations Collapse 08/16
theeastafrican.co.ke Sudan ceasefire talks collapse after less than a week 08/16
sudantribune.com Sudan government says rebels are not serious about peace 08/15
sudantribune.com Senior officials of Yei River state killed or wounded 08/15
sudantribune.com SPLM-IO says President Kiir responsible for “collapse of peace agreement” 08/15
allafrica.com Delegation of People's Movement (Silent Majority) Holds Meetings in Addis Ababa 08/15
allafrica.com South Sudan: Killings, Rapes, Looting in Juba 08/15
sudantribune.com SPLA announcement to reclaim looted items not sincere: owners 08/14
sudantribune.com South Sudan cabinet approves integration of SPLA-IO forces 08/13
sudantribune.com Internal Displaced Persons from Rii-randu are getting assistance in Yambio 08/13
sudantribune.com Disagreement on humanitarian access jeopardizes talks on Sudan’s Two Areas 08/13
sudantribune.com UN Security Council votes for third party foreign force to South Sudan 08/12
sudantribune.com Clashes occur between South Sudanese rival forces between Lobonok and Rejaf East 08/12
sudantribune.com Over 2,000 people displaced in S. Sudan’s Raga town 08/11
voanews.com Analysts: Salvaging South Sudan Peace Agreement Faces Challenges 08/11
sudantribune.com Sudan negotiating delegations accuse each other of attempting to torpedo peace talks 08/11
allafrica.com Government Delegation to the Negotiations in Addis Ababa Holds a Press Conference 08/11
sudantribune.com President Kiir’s coup claim not true, a harmful plan: Spokesman 08/11
allafrica.com Sudan: Rebels Put Offer of One-Year Ceasefire 08/11
sudantribune.com Sudanese gov’t delegation lash out at SPLM-N chief negotiator 08/10
foxnews.com Sudanese rebels reportedly agree to roadmap for peace 08/09
theeastafrican.co.ke Sudanese rebels agree to AU peace proposal 08/09
monitor.co.ug More UN troops might not quell violence in S. Sudan - inquiry 08/09
sudantribune.com Clashes around strategic Yei town between South Sudanese rival forces: Spokesperson 08/09
nation.co.ke More UN troops might not quell violence in South Sudan, inquiry suggests 08/08
stripes.com South Sudanese civilians fear the UN can't protect them from a massacre 08/06
monitor.co.ug UN inquiry finds peacekeepers failed to defend South Sudan base 08/06