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Sudan - south

Conflict between autonomous South Sudan and northern government.

Summary

From SmallWarsJournal.com: Southern Sudan - The Four Theses:

Even before Sudan first gained its independence, in 1956, a separatist insurgency has existed in Southern Sudan. The root causes of this struggle - economic marginalization and political disenfranchisement - have never been adequately resolved. Twice this insurgency has boiled over into all-out civil war. The 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was the result of an international effort aimed at ending the period of conflict known as the Second Sudanese Civil War, a conflict which lasted from 1983 - 2005. The CPA was signed between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M). Given that the root causes were the same, this conflict was really just a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil War (1955 - 1973). However, unlike the first iteration, the Second Sudanese Civil War featured considerable regional support for the opposing belligerents. In effect, the Second Sudanese Civil War was as much an interstate war by proxy as it was an intrastate conflict.

The CPA provided for a level of autonomy for Southern Sudan (with a regional capital in Juba), and established the framework for a government of national unity (located in the country's capital, Khartoum). The CPA succeeded in all these respects. But like so many other well-intentioned efforts, the CPA carried the seeds of its own destruction - a 'poison pill.' In this case, the 'poison pill' is a key provision of the CPA that sets a date for Southern Sudan to hold a referendum on its future status - full union within Sudan, albeit with considerable autonomy, or independence. According to the terms of the CPA, the referendum was set to be held six years to the day following the signing of the CPA. Since the CPA was signed on January 9th, 2005; the referendum is set for January 9th, 2011.

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Stats:

Fund for Peace (FfP) Failed States Index: 113 Alert (worst is 120)
HIIK Conflict Barometer 2008: 4
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre Global Statistics : 1,935,000 IDPs
WFP Hunger Map: 26 % undernourished
Economist Intelligence Unit Sovereign Ratings: Rating C
International Crisis Group Crisis Watch: Unchanged
News up to:
globalsecurity.org UN Report Alleges South Sudan Army Raped, Killed, Looted 07/01
aljazeera.com UN: South Sudan army raped girls and burned them alive 06/30
sudantribune.com Stray bullet hits infant in Upper Nile state clash 06/30
telegraph.co.uk South Sudan's military 'gang-raped then burned women alive' in hunt for rebels 06/30
scmp.com South Sudan army raped then burned girls alive: UN 06/30
sudantribune.com South Sudanese rebels say no differences among Equatorian opposition leaders 06/30
sudantribune.com S. Sudan admits losing strategic town of Malakal to rebels 06/30
sudantribune.com UN documents atrocities committed by South Sudan army in Unity state 06/30
sify.com New levels of 'brutality' in South Sudan, says UN rights report 06/30
news2.onlinenigeria.com South Sudan Army Defiled Girls And Burned Them Alive - UN 06/30
voanews.com UN Report Alleges South Sudan Army Raped, Killed, Looted 06/30
aljazeera.com Abyei, a non-state entity of post-war Sudanese divide 06/30
mg.co.za South Sudan army raped, burnt girls alive - UN report 06/30
msf.org South Sudan: MSF resumes activities in Melut 06/29
wsj.com Rebels Recapture South Sudan’s Oil Hub Malakal 06/29
doctorswithoutborders.org South Sudan: Restoring Water Supply for 20,000 People 06/29
sudantribune.com South Sudanese army and rebels contest control of Farajalla in W. Bahr el Ghazal 06/29
sudantribune.com Rebels claim recapture strategic Malakal town in Upper Nile 06/28
sudantribune.com Rebel leader meets AU high representative for South Sudan 06/28
modernghana.com S.Sudan rebels battle over key town as talks collapse 06/28
sudantribune.com Former militia General reunites with South Sudan army 06/28
sudantribune.com S. Sudan army heavily deployed as rebels claim control of Malakal 06/28
sudantribune.com ICC judges refer to UNSC Sudan’s non-cooperation on case of ex-defense minister 06/27
sudantribune.com South Sudan’s former detainees unveil peace plan to stop war 06/27
sudantribune.com South Sudan rival forces claim control of Doleib hill area in Upper Nile state 06/27
sudantribune.com Kiir and Machar fail to agree in Nairobi 06/27
sudantribune.com SPLM-N calls for international probe on war crimes in Blue Nile 06/27
sudantribune.com UN to impose first sanctions on South Sudanese rival military commanders 06/26
sudantribune.com South Sudan peace talks to resume next July 06/25
sudantribune.com Amum vows to reunite divided SPLM, end South Sudanese war 06/24
sudantribune.com Sudanese parliament voices frustration over continued armed insurgency 06/24
sudantribune.com The return and reinstatement of Pagan Amum as SG of SPLM & implications 06/24
voanews.com Once Accused of Treason, South Sudan Ex-Detainee Gets Old Job Back 06/23
sudantribune.com S. Sudan rebels reiterate commitment to Arusha process, say talks should not be in Juba 06/23
sudantribune.com SPLM-IO accuses govt forces of renewed fighting in Jonglei 06/23
sudantribune.com Return of Former Political Detainees: the saga of hopes and disappointments 06/22
sudantribune.com S. Sudanese rebels accuse SPLA of lootings in Unity state 06/22
bbc.co.uk Discrimination rife in troubled Sudan 06/21
aljazeera.com Divided and desperate along South Sudan's front-line 06/21
france24.com EXCLUSIVE: South Sudan’s displaced trapped on Nile frontlines 06/20
sudantribune.com South Sudan’s PLP calls for renegotiation of IGAD power sharing proposal 06/17
sudantribune.com Rebels appoint governor for curbed Warrap state 06/16
allafrica.com Sudan: Cluster Bombs Hit Homes in May 06/16
sudantribune.com SPLA denies capture of South Sudanese soldiers In Upper Nile 06/15
sudantribune.com South Sudanese rebel leader meets Tanzanian president over SPLM reunification process 06/15
sudantribune.com South Sudanese rebels repulse attack by gov’t forces in Upper Nile 06/14
sudantribune.com SPLM-N rebels call on South African gov’t to arrest Sudan’s Bashir 06/14
monitor.co.ug Teachers under the Uganda National Teachers Organisation 06/14
sudantribune.com SPLM-N rebels repulse fresh government attack in Blue Nile: spokesperson 06/14
sudantribune.com Sudanese opposition launches a campaign to stop the war 06/13
sudantribune.com Juba cautiously welcomes IGAD’s power sharing agreement 06/12
sudantribune.com IGAD proposes key points of agreement between South Sudanese parties 06/12
sudantribune.com SPLM-N rebels says they have seized control of strategic garrison in S. Kordofan 06/12
sudantribune.com IGAD proposed agreement encourages war in other two S. Sudan regions: rebels 06/12
sudantribune.com South Sudan rebels deny missing nine officers in Northern Bahr el Ghazal state 06/12
sudantribune.com Key provisions proposed by the IGAD for the agreement on the resolution of the South Sudanese conflict 06/12
sudantribune.com South Sudanese, Sudanese army commanders meet over border security matters 06/11
allafrica.com South Sudan: 'Balkanology', an Intractable Conflict, and the Fracturing of South Sudan 06/11
sudantribune.com IGAD plus, SPLM-FD and prospects for peace in South Sudan 06/11
allafrica.com South Sudan: South Sudan and the Chronic Failure of a Ruling Elite 06/10
sudantribune.com South Sudanese president directs frank consultations with rebels 06/09
voanews.com Army Spokesman: South Sudan Military Controls Oil Fields 06/08
sudantribune.com Rebels urge civilians in Bahr el Ghazal to not panic as war gains momentum 06/08
sudantribune.com S. Sudanese opposition alliance leader unveils peace plan 06/08
globalsecurity.org Sudan's Bashir Names New Foreign, Defense, Oil Ministers 06/07
theeastafrican.co.ke Khartoum accused of arming South Sudan rebels 06/06
sudantribune.com South Sudanese army claims Sudan provides heavy weapons to rebels 06/06
voanews.com Sudan's Bashir Names New Foreign, Defense, Oil Ministers 06/06
sudantribune.com Individuals coordinated W. Bahr el Ghazal attack: commissioner 06/06
sudantribune.com 10 security personnel killed in South Sudan’s Lakes state 06/05
sudantribune.com S. Sudan’s Upper Nile state relocates headquarters to Renk town 06/05
allafrica.com South Sudan: 'Sudan Airdropped Weapons to Rebels' - Report 06/04
allafrica.com South Sudan: South Sudan - Causalities Increase As Access Shrinks 06/04
sudantribune.com South Sudan’s SPLM-IO refutes claims it receives weapons from Sudan 06/04
allafrica.com Sudan: Shangal Peaceful Farmers Forced to Take Up Weapons to Get Food 06/03
sudantribune.com South Sudan's Kiir revokes dismissal of senior SPLM officials 06/03
sudantribune.com South Sudanese rebels react to revocation of dismissal of SPLM leaders 06/03
sudantribune.com Pro-rebels South Sudanese academician dies in Ethiopia 06/03
sudantribune.com South Sudanese rebels inflict heavy casualties on government troops: spokesperson 06/03
modernghana.com Sudan likely to have armed S.Sudan rebels by air: report 06/02
turkishweekly.net Sudan’s Bashir pardons rebels after being sworn-in for new term 06/02
voanews.com Conflict, Hunger Force More People to Flee in South Sudan 06/02
theeastafrican.co.ke Kiir seen warming to peace process as five detainees return 06/02
sudantribune.com SPLM-N rebels ambush government troops in S. Kordofan 06/02
voanews.com Report: Khartoum Possibly Arming Rebels in South Sudan 06/02
sudantribune.com Khartoum “airdropped” arms to S. Sudanese rebels, says report 06/02
allafrica.com South Sudan: When Will Peace Return to South Sudan? 05/31
sudantribune.com South Sudanese rebels appoint governor for Jonglei state 05/31
sudantribune.com Upper Nile governor returns to oil-rich state 05/30
sudantribune.com South Sudanese rebels welcome targeted sanctions in ending war 05/30
allafrica.com Kenya: President Kenyatta in New Push for South Sudan Peace 05/30
allafrica.com South Sudan: A Local Radio Project is Calming Community Tensions 05/29
sudantribune.com W. Equatoria youth group deny links with pro-Machar rebels 05/29
dw.de When will peace return to South Sudan? 05/29
allafrica.com South Sudan: Fighting Against History 05/28
sudantribune.com UN voices concern over reports of large-scale displacement in Blue Nile 05/27
aljazeera.com S Sudan gains 'full control' of oil town from rebels 05/26
sudantribune.com Juba accuses Sudan of supporting new insurgency in Western Equatoria 05/26
sudantribune.com South Sudan to “disarm” rebels after recapturing Malakal 05/25
sudantribune.com South Sudanese army retakes Malakal from rebels: Aguer 05/25