Congo - east

Since 1996; conflict has centered around control of mineral resources in weakly-controlled eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, exacerbated by the FDLR rebel group mostly comprised of former soldiers of the Interahamwe in Rwanda. See summary

Recent articles:

allafrica.com Ethinic Clashes, Kidnappings Worsen DRC Woes 04/28
appablog.wordpress.com Democratic Republic of the Congo: Medecins sans frontieres fights measles 04/27
allafrica.com Uganda Targets South Sudan, DR Congo With Logistics Hub 04/27
appablog.wordpress.com RDC : Medecins sans frontieres se mobilise contre la Rougeole 04/27
allafrica.com Rwanda, DR Congo Agree to Enhance Bilateral Trade Ties 04/26
allafrica.com Court Convicts M23 Rebels of Illegal Entry Into Uganda 04/26
allafrica.com Rwanda, DRC Sign Joint Oil Search Deal 04/25
allafrica.com DR Congo Based Militia Defectors Speaks About Recent Infighting 04/24
doctorswithoutborders.org Patient Stories: Fighting Measles in DRC 04/24
allafrica.com Can Young Leaders Bring Change & Stem Violence? 04/23
allafrica.com Suspected DR Congo Soldiers Kidnap Four Ugandans 04/21
allafrica.com Four Years On the Congolese Government Is Failing to Enforce Its Law Designed to Stem Conflict and Abuses in the Minerals Trade 04/20
allafrica.com South Sudan Refugees 'Hold 13 UN Staff Hostage' in DRC Camp 04/19
allafrica.com Refugees Free UN Staff Held Hostage in DRC Camp 04/19
allafrica.com South Sudan: South Sudan Ex-Rebels Release UN Hostages in DR Congo 04/19
allafrica.com South Sudanese Refugees Hold UN Staff Hostage in Congo 04/19
hosted.ap.org UN says its staff members freed by South Sudan refugees 04/18
aljazeera.com S Sudan refugees 'hold 13 UN staff hostage' in DRC camp 04/18
aljazeera.com UN staff 'held hostage' by refugees in DRC camp freed 04/18
dnaindia.com South Sudan refugees take 13 U.N. mission staff hostage 04/18
allafrica.com Rwandan Students in Uganda Hold a Walk to Remember 04/18
dw.com South Sudanese refugees hold UN staff hostage in Congo 04/18
voanews.com South Sudan Refugees Seize UN Staffers in Congo Camp 04/18
france24.com UN staff held hostage by South Sudanese militiamen in DR Congo 04/18
modernghana.com South Sudan ex-rebels release UN hostages in DR Congo 04/18
sudantribune.com South Sudanese refugees release 16 U.N staff members 04/18
nzherald.co.nz South Sudan refugees take 13 UN Congo mission staff hostage 04/18
allafrica.com Africa: Africa's Businesses Should Help Shape Policies to Protect Our Lakes 04/17
globalsecurity.org Illegal armed groups pose 'persistent threat' to Africa's Great Lakes region – UN envoy 04/12
un.org Illegal armed groups pose 'persistent threat' to Africa's Great Lakes region – UN envoy 04/12
monitor.co.ug Pope Francis calls for peace in DR Congo 04/02
allafrica.com UN and Regional Partners Express Concern About Kasaï Unrest 03/31
allafrica.com Zimbabwe: World Food Programme Appeals for Refugee Aid 03/31
allafrica.com ICC Orders Damages for Victims of Congolese Warlord 03/29
allafrica.com Reactions of Victims to the Prospect of Reparations in the Lubanga Case 03/29
allafrica.com US Concerned About Lack of DRC Political Agreement Progress 03/29
bbc.co.uk Kasai unrest: Bodies found in hunt for UN Congo experts 03/28
globalsecurity.org DR Congo: UN and regional partners express concern about Kasaï unrest 03/28
un.org DR Congo: UN and regional partners express concern about Kasaï unrest 03/28
aljazeera.com DRC tense as police clash with anti-Kabila protesters 03/28
bbc.co.uk Militia fighters decapitate 40 police officers in DR Congo 03/25
aljazeera.com ICC set for first monetary awards to war crime victims 03/24
france24.com ICC awards Congo war crimes victims a symbolic $250 each 03/24
dw.com ICC orders damages for victims of Congolese warlord 03/24
dw.com ICC orders damages for victims of Congolese warlord 03/24
allafrica.com Rwanda: Govt Ready to Send Extra Troops to South Sudan 03/23
allafrica.com UN Rights Body Should Launch Commission of Inquiry Into Kasai Violence 03/23
allafrica.com Kamuina Nsapu Insurgency Adds to Dangers in DR Congo 03/22
allafrica.com UN Urges Govt to Implement December Political Deal 03/22
hrw.org UN Rights Body Should Launch Commission of Inquiry into Kasai Violence 03/22
telegraph.co.uk Dog survives after being thrown out of van onto busy motorway 03/14
hosted.ap.org UN chief seeks more police for Congo mission as violence up 03/11
businessdailyafrica.com Jalada mobile arts festival travels to five EA states this month 03/10
allafrica.com Uganda: UPDF Soldier Shot Dead in Fight With M-23 Rebels 03/04
dnaindia.com Congo opposition party expels top official in sign of infighting 03/04
allafrica.com Civilians Fleeing Eastern DR Congo Clashes 03/04
vanguardngr.com Late Congo opposition leader’s son named as successor 03/03
allafrica.com Ugandan Soldiers Killed, Injured in Clashes With M23 Rebels 03/03
dnaindia.com Suspected militiamen kidnap 5 workers at Banro's east Congo mine 03/02
monitor.co.ug Kisoro LC5 chairperson apologises to councillors 03/02
theeastafrican.co.ke Civilians fleeing eastern DR Congo clashes 03/01
allafrica.com Uganda Holds Dozens of Fleeing M23 Rebels After Congo Clashes 03/01
irinnews.org In support of Dodd-Frank conflict minerals regulation 02/28
theeastafrican.co.ke Barriers hurting cross-border trade 02/26
tamilguardian.com Court acknowledges crimes against humanity committed in Mutarule, DRC 02/24
allafrica.com Rwanda Refugees Quit Conflict in DRC 02/24
monitor.co.ug 16 killed in three days of DR Congo clashes 02/24
theeastafrican.co.ke Uganda holds dozens of fleeing M23 rebels after Congo clashes 02/24
monitor.co.ug Refugees flee clashes in DR Congo 02/24
enoughproject.org Seven Letters from Congolese Groups in Support of the U.S. Conflict Minerals Law 02/24
stripes.com 16 rebels killed in fighting with army in Congo's east 02/23
af.reuters.com Uganda holds dozens of fleeing M23 rebels after Congo clashes 02/23
monitor.co.ug Refugees flee fighting in DR Congo 02/23
globalsecurity.org Over two dozen civilians killed in DR Congo rebel attack 02/20
dw.com Militiamen kill 25 civilians in ethnic attack in DR Congo 02/19
modernghana.com 25 civilians killed in DR Congo ethnic attack 02/18
allafrica.com My Necktie Tricks With M23 Rebels and Why Kabila Should Leave Power 02/18
monitor.co.ug Four more M23 rebels arrested in Kisoro 02/17
allafrica.com Budget Minister Casts Doubt on 2017 Elections 02/17
monitor.co.ug My necktie tricks with M23 rebels and why Kabila should leave power 02/17
enoughproject.org The De Facto Embargo is Over: Record-High Conflict-Free Minerals Exports from Eastern Congo 02/16
allafrica.com East Africa: Uganda Moves to Expel Burundian Refugees 02/16
miningweekly.com African States wary of potential repeal of 'conflict minerals' rule 02/15
aljazeera.com The healing powers of football in the DRC 02/14
irinnews.org Who pays the hidden price for Congo’s conflict-free minerals? 02/13
hosted.ap.org Congolese music festival for peace draws tens of thousands 02/12
modernghana.com DR Congo war crimes trial resumes for ex-warlord Katanga 02/10
allafrica.com Africa: African Press Review 10 February 2017 02/10
allafrica.com Africa: DR Congo, Tanzania, Zambia and Burundi to Meet On Lake Tanganyika Oil 02/09
monitor.co.ug 750 M23 ex-combatants unaccounted for 02/09
allafrica.com Basketball - U-16 Girls' Team to Play Friendlies in Europe 02/08
msf.org DRC: Fighting measles in South Kivu 02/08
dnaindia.com Congo opposition demands new govt before repatriating leader's body 02/08
edition.cnn.com Former child soldiers start boxing school for Congo's youth 02/07
allafrica.com Fate of Former M23 Rebel Fighters Remains Unclear 02/07
allafrica.com Burundi: Presumed Rebels? 02/06
theeastafrican.co.ke Fate of former M23 rebel fighters remains unclear 02/06
allafrica.com Its Time for Amani Festival in Goma 02/06
appablog.wordpress.com Women’s Participation in Political and Peace Processes in the Great Lakes Region 02/06
appablog.wordpress.com Participation des femmes aux processus politiques et de paix dans la région des Grands Lacs 02/06

Summary

After the Interahamwe in 1994, Hutu militia groups moved across the border from Rwanda into Kivu province of what was then Zaire. Zaire's ruler, the kleptomaniac strongman Mobutu Sese Seko, failed to prevent the militias from attacking across the border into Rwanda. Local rebel leader Laurent Kabila, backed by Rwandan troops and equipment, swept out of southeastern Zaire in 1997 and seized the country from Mobutu.

The newly renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo was not easy to govern. The Second Congo War erupted in 1998, involving troops from Rwanda, Uganda, Angola, Namibia and Zimbabwe. The vast mineral resources of the east of the country helped to fuel the conflict. In 2001 Laurent Kabila died, and his son Joseph Kabila took power. The war officially ended in 2002, and foreign troops left.

However, fighting continued among government factions and remaining militias. In 2004, Laurent Nkunda began another rebellion, claiming that the Tutsis of the region were being forsaken by the government soldiers. His rebel group was supported by Rwanda. This continued off and until 2008, when his army began a major offensive. International pressure on Rwanda grew, and Rwanda arrested Nkunda in early 2009.

Currently, the Hutu militias still operate in the area, although with greatly reduced numbers. Government soldiers are also frequently accused of crimes against civilians.