Congo - east

Since 1996; conflict has centered around control of mineral resources in weakly-controlled eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, exacerbated by the FDLR rebel group mostly comprised of former soldiers of the Interahamwe in Rwanda. See summary

Recent articles:

globalsecurity.org Much aid, little long-term impact in DRC 01/27
euractiv.com Failing to Deliver? The EU and governance assistance in Africa's Great Lakes region 01/27
allafrica.com FDLR Disarmament Delays - Another Untold Story 01/26
bbc.co.uk Congo MPs pass amended census law 01/26
allafrica.com Catholic Church Condemns Police Brutality, Urges for Peaceful Protests 01/26
allafrica.com Halt Unlawful Shootings, Arrests 01/26
allafrica.com In the UN's Gun Sights - One of DRC's Most Infamous Rebel Groups 01/26
allafrica.com Federal Foreign Office On the Unrest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo 01/26
allafrica.com UN Human Rights Office Urges Probe Into Excessive Use of Force in Protests 01/26
allafrica.com AU Summit - the Men in Hats With Their Backs Against the Wall 01/26
reuters.com Congo protests expose weakness of Kabila's coalition 01/26
globalsecurity.org UN human rights office urges probe into excessive use of force in DR Congo protests 01/24
hrw.org DR Congo: Deadly Crackdown on Protests 01/24
dailytimes.com.pk 40 dead in DR Congo protests: HRW : January 24, 2015, 2:27 pm 01/24
theeastafrican.co.ke Momentum lost in search for peace in Congo 01/24
france24.com DR Congo lawmakers ‘to drop’ part of election bill amid unrest 01/24
jurist.org HRW: DRC using excessive force against protestors 01/24
foxnews.com Controversial proposed election law withdrawn by Congo's parliament after deadly unrest 01/24
theeastafrican.co.ke Why Kabila is yet to declare military action against FDLR 01/24
capitalfm.co.ke 40 dead in DR Congo protests: Human Rights Watch 01/24
sify.com UN human rights office urges probe into excessive use of force in DR Congo protests 01/23
allafrica.com WCC Condemns Violent Demonstrations in Kinshasa 01/23
bbc.co.uk Protesters hail 'historic' Congo vote 01/23
hosted.ap.org Congo's Senate votes down measure that drew protests 01/23
allafrica.com Rwanda: Duo Handed 20 Years for Murder of Transparency International Staff 01/23
voanews.com DRC Senate Changes Controversial Electoral Bill 01/23
dw.de DR Congo Senate alters disputed bill after deadly protests 01/23
euronews.com DR Congo scraps plans for census after days of violent unrest 01/23
globalsecurity.org In the UN's gun sights: one of DRC's most infamous rebel groups 01/23
voanews.com Lengthy Battle Seen Against Rwandan Rebels in DRC 01/22
allafrica.com DRC Should End Violent Crackdown On Protesters 01/22
bbc.co.uk Congo clashes over cut internet 01/22
reuters.com West urges Congo to suspend new election law after deadly protests 01/22
wsj.com Congo Blocks Internet Access Amid Protests 01/22
economist.com Congo and Rwanda: Ever again 01/22
csmonitor.com At least a dozen die in Congo protests over controversial electoral law 01/22
allafrica.com Term Limits Law Delayed After Protests 01/22
un.org DR Congo: Ban urges calm in Kinshasa; peacekeeping chief backs gradual drawdown of UN mission 01/22
aljazeera.com DR Congo protests over census turn deadly 01/22
turkishpress.com 3 killed in clashes in eastern DRC 01/22
allafrica.com Rwanda-DR Congo Border Tense Amid Deadly Riots 01/22
enoughproject.org Update on Congo violence: Envoys call for restraint, timely electoral process 01/22
sputniknews.com UN Troubled by Crackdown on Peaceful Protesters in DRC, UN Official Says 01/22
ekklesia.co.uk Churches' concern at Congo election violence 01/22
allafrica.com Recycling Garbage in DR Congo Crisis City 01/22
allafrica.com The Benediction, an Illuminating Congolese Workshop 01/21
allafrica.com Africa: Ringing in the New Year Amid Gunfire and Intrigue 01/21
bbc.co.uk Catholic schools shut in Kinshasa 01/21
euronews.com Third day of unrest in DR Congo as rights group says over 40 people have died 01/21
news2.onlinenigeria.com DR Congo Clashes Over Cut Internet In Goma 01/21
diplomatie.gouv.fr Democratic Republic of Congo – Draft electoral law (20.01.15) 01/20
allafrica.com Rwanda: New UN Report Pins Tanzania On FDLR Militia 01/20
allafrica.com FDLR - EU Says It's Time to Strike Militia 01/20
bbc.co.uk Deadly Congo clashes over Kabila 01/20
sputniknews.com Violence in Congo Claims 13 Lives, Internet Shut Down by Gov't 01/20
allafrica.com Rwanda: UN Envoy Calls for Urgent Offensive Against FDLR 01/19
allafrica.com Angolan President Assesses in Tripartite Security in Eastern DRC 01/19
reuters.com Congo police fire tear gas as protests against election reform mount 01/19
allafrica.com Minister Rules Out Angolan Army in DRC Operations 01/19
dw.de Congo police fire at protesters opposed to election changes 01/19
news.com.au Nine killed in Congo protests 01/19
euronews.com Several deaths reported in Kinshasa after protests against electoral reforms opposition brands a "constitutional coup" 01/19
timeslive.co.za Gunfire, tear gas in protests against possible Congo election delay 01/19
allafrica.com Disarming FDLR Militia - Kabila Holds Key 01/19
allafrica.com Congolese Civilians Deserve No Less 01/19
aljazeera.com UN prepares for FDLR offensive in DRC 01/18
allafrica.com Rwanda Insists Security Should Top AU Summit Agenda 01/17
theeastafrican.co.ke Q&A with MARTIN KOBLER: Military option only way to neutralise armed groups 01/17
un.org DR Congo: UN mission chief voices ‘full solidarity’ as Government battles armed groups 01/16
voanews.com DRC Spokesman: Presidential Poll Could be Delayed 01/16
aljazeera.com Offensive to target Rwandan fighters in DRC 01/16
aljazeera.com Can the FDLR be defeated? 01/16
theeastafrican.co.ke Kagame complains of inaction on DR Congo rebels 01/16
aljazeera.com UN and DRC forces prepare for war 01/16
allafrica.com World Caught Between Two Extremes - Kagame 01/16
modernghana.com UN still awaiting Kabila go-ahead for DR Congo offensive 01/16
theguardian.com Gorillas, guns and volcanoes: on patrol with Congo's first female rangers 01/15
monitor.co.ug Old Mutual Uganda Eyes Regional Expansion 01/15
allafrica.com FDLR - All Eyes On MONUSCO, DR Congo As Angola Summit Is Called Off 01/15
allafrica.com Angola/South Africa - Presidents Meet Privately 01/14
allafrica.com UN Seeks to Minimize Risk to Civilians in Military Offensive 01/14
allafrica.com Rwanda: FDLR Trial - Phone Intercepts Pin Murwanashyaka, Musoni 01/14
allafrica.com President Eduardo Dos Santos Sends Message to DRC Counterpart 01/14
timeslive.co.za SA heads for new DRC war 01/14
voanews.com Tanzanian Leader: We're Ready to Fight Rebels in Eastern DRC 01/14
reuters.com Tanzania says ready to take on Congo rebels 01/14
theeastafrican.co.ke UN forces ready to attack FDLR, as Luanda summit is called off 01/13
allafrica.com U.S. Supports Military Action Against FDLR 01/13
allafrica.com Rwanda: FDLR Trial Resumes in Germany 01/13
voanews.com UN Military Action in DRC 'Inevitable' 01/13
allafrica.com Democratic Republic of the Congo - 152 Former Child Soldiers Reunited With Families 01/13
dw.de UN seeks to minimize risk to civilians in DRC offensive 01/13
allafrica.com Minister Denies Holding of Joint ICGLR/SADC Summit On DRC 01/12
allafrica.com We Have to Fix Our Education Systems, Not Just the Ranking 01/12
allafrica.com Martin Kobler, Head of Monusco, Expresses Great Satisfaction With Fardc-Monusco Cooperation 01/12
allafrica.com Dar Backs Disarmament of DRC Rebels 01/12
allafrica.com Do S. Africa, Tanzania & Malawi Lack Will to Pursue Rebels? 01/12
allafrica.com Trinity Express Ltd to Launch Kigali-Dar Route 01/12
allafrica.com Rwanda: Tanzania Won't Attack Rwandan FDLR Rebels - Says Foreign Minister 01/12
allafrica.com SA Responds to Disarmament of Armed Group FDLR 01/12

Summary

After the Interahamwe in 1994, Hutu militia groups moved across the border from Rwanda into Kivu province of what was then Zaire. Zaire's ruler, the kleptomaniac strongman Mobutu Sese Seko, failed to prevent the militias from attacking across the border into Rwanda. Local rebel leader Laurent Kabila, backed by Rwandan troops and equipment, swept out of southeastern Zaire in 1997 and seized the country from Mobutu.

The newly renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo was not easy to govern. The Second Congo War erupted in 1998, involving troops from Rwanda, Uganda, Angola, Namibia and Zimbabwe. The vast mineral resources of the east of the country helped to fuel the conflict. In 2001 Laurent Kabila died, and his son Joseph Kabila took power. The war officially ended in 2002, and foreign troops left.

However, fighting continued among government factions and remaining militias. In 2004, Laurent Nkunda began another rebellion, claiming that the Tutsis of the region were being forsaken by the government soldiers. His rebel group was supported by Rwanda. This continued off and until 2008, when his army began a major offensive. International pressure on Rwanda grew, and Rwanda arrested Nkunda in early 2009.

Currently, the Hutu militias still operate in the area, although with greatly reduced numbers. Government soldiers are also frequently accused of crimes against civilians.