Congo - east

Since 1996; conflict has centered around control of mineral resources in weakly-controlled eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, exacerbated by the FDLR rebel group mostly comprised of former soldiers of the Interahamwe in Rwanda. See summary

Recent articles: As deadline expires, Kinshasa pledges to finally disarm FDLR 12/20 Two men burnt alive in DR Congo after attack: official 12/20 Chaotic closure of a North Kivu IDP camp 12/19 88,000 Displaced by series of massacres in Congo 12/19 The International Envoys for the Great Lakes Region Call for Rapid Implementation of the Nairobi Declarations 12/19 Hundreds Killed in Eastern DRC Attacks 12/19 UN mission to bring peace to DR Congo 'has stalled' 12/19 Eastern Congo's Beni Region Rocked By Killings, Rights Abuses and Fear 12/19 UN Rights Chief Welcomes Conviction of Congolese Army Officer for Crimes Against Humanity 12/19 DR Congo: Amid spike in violence, UN refugee agency concerned about humanitarian situation 12/19 Ending the Status Quo 12/18 UN rights chief welcomes conviction of Congolese army officer for crimes against humanity 12/18 Georgianne Nienaber: Waiting for the Outrage About Congo Massacres in Beni 12/18 UPDF returns renegade M23 rebels to Congo 12/18 DR Congo ex-rebels found in Uganda refugee camp 12/18 Kagame Meets Dos Santos As FDLR Offensive Nears 12/18 Looming Offensive Prompts 'Humanitarian Fallout' Fears 12/17 MONUSCO welcomes Conviction Top Military Official 12/17 Is Museveni attack on ICC for Pan-Africanism or personal reasons? 12/17 UN Envoys Welcome Conviction of Army Officer for Crimes Against Humanity 12/17 Kigali, Kampala Intensify Anti-Terrorism Initiative 12/17 Congo: Ending the Status Quo 12/17 Congolese M23 rebels flee Uganda camp 12/17 M23 ex-rebels break out of Uganda camp 12/17 Hundreds of M23 rebels escape repatriation 12/17 Nearly 1,000 congolese rebels escape from camp in Uganda 12/17 Rwanda, Uganda in Joint Efforts Against Terrorism 12/17 DR Congo ex-rebels found in Uganda refugee camp 12/17 Kagame, Angolan Leader Hold Bilateral Talks in Luanda 12/17 Kagame, Angolan Leader Hold Talks in Luanda 12/17 Repatriation of Former M23 Rebels Turns Violent 12/17 Former Congo Rebels Flee Uganda Camp 12/16 UN and DR Congo re-launch hunt for militants blamed for massacres 12/16 UN-Led Great Lakes Envoys Urge Faster Implementation of M23 Peace Deal 12/16 Congo ex-rebels 'run away in Uganda' 12/16 Hundreds Still Missing On Lake Tanganyika Disaster 12/16 Fearing repatriation to Congo, M23 rebels flee Ugandan camp 12/16 Human Rights Watch urges ICC to probe massacres in east DR Congo 12/16 Congo’s M23 rebels protest repatriation 12/16 UPDATE 1-African Markets - Factors to watch on Dec 16 12/16 Congolese Rebels Escape From Camp in Uganda 12/16 DR Congo: Scores Killed in Rebel Attacks 12/16 Congolese M23 rebels flee Uganda camp 12/16 1,000 DRC ex-rebels break out of Uganda camp: army 12/16 M23 ex-rebels break out of Uganda camp 12/16 UN envoys welcome conviction of Congolese army officer for crimes against humanity 12/16 Repatriation in Uganda turns violent 12/16 M23 rebels escape from barracks 12/16 Gasigwa Eyes Goma Tennis Open Title 12/15 DR Congo: UN-led Great Lakes envoys urge faster implementation of M23 peace deal 12/15 Still Awaiting Justice for M23 Abuses 12/15 Ferry Sinks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Killing at Least 129 12/15 Meet the Intrepid 'Motards Sans Frontières' 12/15 Prosecution Seeks Life Term for Musanze Terror Suspects 12/15 Bosenibamwe Denies Terror Links 12/15 Democratic Republic of Congo: Bikers Without Borders 12/15 U.N. brigade will need to 'neutralise' Congo rebels: chief 12/15 Congolese colonel gets life for crimes against humanity 12/15 Construction of Rubavu-Goma One-Stop Border Post Launched 12/15 Congo official: 129 drown after boat sinks on lake 12/14 Dozens drown as boat capsizes in Democratic Republic of Congo 12/14 Official: 129 drown after boat sinks on Congo lake 12/14 Hundreds feared dead in DRC as boat capsizes on Lake Tanganyika 12/14 Scores drown after boat capsizes in DR Congo 12/14 At Least 129 Dead in Congo Boat Capsize 12/14 Scores Die as Congo Boat Sinks 12/14 Hundreds feared missing after boat sinks in Lake Tanganyika 12/14 Hundreds Missing After Boat Sinks in Lake Tanganyika 12/14 Death toll in Congo's Lake Tanganyika shipwreck climbs to more than 100 12/14 At least 26 dead after boat capsizes on Lake Tanganyika 12/14 At Least 26 Dead After Boat Capsizes on Lake Tanganyika in DR Congo 12/13 Slow progress in DR Congo's M23 rebel deal risking peace: envoys 12/13 Dozens dead as boat in DR Congo capsizes 12/13 Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe Refugee Food Assistance Programme in 2015 12/12 EJVM Should Get to the Bottom of Renewed DR Congo Shelling 12/12 Suspect Pins Governor On FDLR Plots 12/12 Terror Suspect Accuses Governor Aime Bosenibamwe of Financing FDLR 12/12 DRC: Meet the intrepid ‘Motards Sans Frontières’ 12/12 Surviving Scarcities in Bulengo 12/12 Shadowy Rebel Group Suspected in Village Slaughter 12/11 Surviving scarcities in Bulengo 12/11 Massacres Highlight Complexity of Beni Violence 12/11 Government to deport hundreds of M23 rebels in Uganda 12/10 Uganda to repatriate M23 rebels to Congo 12/10 Massacres highlight complexity of violence in DRC's Beni Territory 12/10 UN Condemns Violence in Eastern DRC City 12/09 34 killed in northeastern DR Congo attack 12/08 Kabila forms unity Congo government 12/08 German Court Jails Three Over Links to Genocide Killings 12/08 CONGO: The Triangle Of Death 12/08 Congo leader names government, includes opposition 12/08 Return of Displaced People in East Should Be Voluntary - UN 12/08 Congo rebels not ready to return from Uganda 12/08 UN Refugee Agency Concerned At Sudden Closure of Displaced Persons Camp 12/08 Former Congolese M23 rebels not ready to return from Uganda, insist on amnesty for fighters 12/08 DR Congo: UN envoy condemns massacre, urges immediate action to 'eliminate terrorists' 12/08 34 killed in northeastern DRC attack 12/07 Suspected Rebel Attack in Congo Kills 12 12/07 Death toll from DR Congo attack rises to 36: local authorities 12/07 30 dead, five critically injured in DR Congo massacre 12/07


After the Interahamwe in 1994, Hutu militia groups moved across the border from Rwanda into Kivu province of what was then Zaire. Zaire's ruler, the kleptomaniac strongman Mobutu Sese Seko, failed to prevent the militias from attacking across the border into Rwanda. Local rebel leader Laurent Kabila, backed by Rwandan troops and equipment, swept out of southeastern Zaire in 1997 and seized the country from Mobutu.

The newly renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo was not easy to govern. The Second Congo War erupted in 1998, involving troops from Rwanda, Uganda, Angola, Namibia and Zimbabwe. The vast mineral resources of the east of the country helped to fuel the conflict. In 2001 Laurent Kabila died, and his son Joseph Kabila took power. The war officially ended in 2002, and foreign troops left.

However, fighting continued among government factions and remaining militias. In 2004, Laurent Nkunda began another rebellion, claiming that the Tutsis of the region were being forsaken by the government soldiers. His rebel group was supported by Rwanda. This continued off and until 2008, when his army began a major offensive. International pressure on Rwanda grew, and Rwanda arrested Nkunda in early 2009.

Currently, the Hutu militias still operate in the area, although with greatly reduced numbers. Government soldiers are also frequently accused of crimes against civilians.